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Secrets of Da Vinci's The Last Supper

2023.03.22 02:26 menorahman100 Secrets of Da Vinci's The Last Supper

Secrets of Da Vinci's The Last Supper
The theme we will address has never attracted as much attention as it does in the current days. The recent success editorial of the book "The Da Vinci Code" by Dan Brown instigated the imaginary, through a narrative that involves all of these matters related to the life of Christ questioning and presenting conjectures and theories, some credible and many others, in my view, without a lot of reasons, such as the mention of the work of Leonardo Da Vinci, "the Last Supper".
Before we talk about the meaning of Leonardo's work, let's quickly address some aspects of his life to understand the context in which all his work developed.
Leonardo was born in April 1452 in Vinci, a village near by the Florence, son of Piero da Vinci, a notary, and a servant. Leonardo was an illegitimate child, having no rights to his father's estate. But his father, zealous, did not abandon him, having assumed his creation. We must remember that Leonardo was born in the middle ages.
The end of the middle ages is determined by the fall of Constantinople in May 1453. Of course the change from one period to another does not occur through a single event. This is a process of transition that involves multiple events.
With the end of the Middle Ages we have the Renaissance, with the resurgence of the appreciation of man as a factor of relevance in all contexts. Begins Humanism, a movement that revolutionized the thought, emerging new concepts and worldviews. This new concept is a precursor of specialization of knowledge, resulting later in the systematization of human knowledge, with scientism and segregation of knowledge that until then was unified.
Leonardo is more a medieval wise man than a person aligned with trends Renaissance because he was not restricted in specifics knowledge like other geniuses contemporaries geniuses. He had a broad knowledge. He was not only a painter. He was a sculptor, musician, architect, engineer, inventor, anatomist, and also an astrologer, although his biography does not to mention about the universe of hidden knowledge. In short he had a universal knowledge. In all areas he left the mark of his genius.
When he turned 14, his father had placed him as an apprentice in the arts studio of Verrocchio who was a great master of Florence. The art workshops held not only artistic works such as paintings and sculptures, but also construction of buildings, bridges and works of engineering, metallurgy, war machines, everything that required creativity of man to make some kind of artifact.
Leonardo soon excelled in all these arts, having participated in the production of a painting by Verrocchio, by order of Lorenzo Medici, ruler of Florence. He did paint an angel face on a canvas and the delicacy of the lines and the play of light, called the attention of the Medici family, who came to protect him. At this time, the success did not depend on talent, but especially the figure of a protector, a Maecenas.
The Italian peninsula, at that time, was a region of many disputes, without the identity of a country, which has consolidated only in the second half of the nineteenth century with Garibaldi. There were city-states, which they lived in strife. Wars were fought systematically, in order to solidify the power of the clergy. In this context, a war was deflagrated against Florence, promoted by the Vatican, for there were many interests of political composition, dominance, hegemony and economic supremacy.
Leonardo facing this situation, after serving the powerful others, as the Borgia, for example, just moving to Milan, had offered his services to the Duke Ludovico Sforza. Just to get an idea of the talents of Leonardo, he presents his resume as primarily military engineer, as he liked to be recognized, Architect, Builder Weapons, inventor, musician and at the end of the list of qualifications is painter and this is just his ability is that Duke engages him. Ludovico became the new protector of Leonardo.
Among the many works that Leonardo executed custom Ludovico is the "Last Supper." The work should decorate the refectory of the Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie. The work began in 1495 and was completed in 1497. In reality it did not complete. By the way, no work of Leonardo, except St. John and baby Jesus was completed. Were several lawsuits filed against Leonardo because he did not fulfill contract. Leonardo spoke "creation is divine, execution is slavish!"
The Last Supper was painted on the walls of the hall and Leonardo developed a new technique. It is often said that it is a fresco, but in reality a fresco is a painting done on a layer of newly applied plaster still wet. This technique does not allow error and touches later. As Leonardo was primarily a perfectionist, he wanted a technique that could shorten the drying process of the ink
This does not mean he was not an expert, but he wanted the drying delay to execute the work with the greatest perfection imagined. So he developed certain dyes and pigments that have been shown ineffective in relation to conservation. The fresco has been constantly attacked by the action of fungi that decompose, requiring constant maintenance and restoration. Disrespect for art is not a fact that occurs only in our days. Note that, by the need to create a passage for a next room, was opened and then closed the door just about painting, destroying forever a part of the base. A similar fact occurred with the Mona Lisa, which is a painting done on wood panel, which had the sides sawn.
Let us now turn to analyze the picture presented. We see that the figure of Christ is placed exactly in the center and if we trace two perpendicular lines, projecting the vanishing point, we have this convergence point exactly on the right eye of Christ.
Thus we have the picture, with Christ at the center position and the apostles distributed on both sides. Around Christ is formed a circle passing through the arc of the door at the back, forming a triangle with the apex up ward and the other with the apex downwards. In the book "The Da Vinci Code", Dan Brown speaks of these symbols in a simplistic way, relating them to the masculine principles, personified by the figure of Christ, and the female, formed between him and John standing right beside him.
As John's features are feminine Dan Brown claims to be Mary Magdalene, who had been his wife and mother of his daughter Sara, giving rise to the dynasty of the Merovingian, the first kings francs (?). He argues that even Jesus to be a Rabbi, could not be single, and would necessarily have to be married. This is true among the Pharisees, but if we consider Jesus as Essene it would not be a fact, because the Essenes took vows of chastity and poverty of course he could not be married. (See studies on Essenes in the Dead Sea Scrolls).
But that does not interest to the narrative of Dan Brown, because it would invalidate the book. Dan Brown is a researcher and I believe he has his knowledge, but I also believe that it is not interested because it contradicts with their commercial interest, because the truth does not sell. This symbolism is represented with two triangles with opposite vertices, is actually very deep, being present in different traditions such as Vedic and Hebrew, which presents two interlocking triangles, forming the six-pointed star.
The six-pointed star, although it is known as the Star of David or Seal of Solomon is present five thousand years ago in the Vedas This symbol contains hermetic principles, such as correspondence, the polarity, as well as the sex and this cannot be reduced simply to a phallic reference. We are not depreciating the work of Dan Brown and recognize who never spoke much about these matters. These works have never been as visited as it is today and this in itself already has its importance, but we have to put things in their right places.
We can relate the triangle with vertex upwards (upper triad=Spirit), containing the principles Will, Wisdom and Mind (Consciousness). The triangle with the apex downwards relates to the matter (unconsciousness). Thus when the two overlapping triangles results in the manifestation of life.
It is the projection of spirit into matter, as we can also see in the painting of Narcissus (below right), by Caravaggio, where he falls in love with his own image reflected in the mirror of water, going to deny its divine origin and losing in the webs of illusion of the world of things, which is transitory, local and temporal. The world of things is composed of the four elements (Fire, Air, Water and Earth).
The combination of the three higher attributes mathematically generates the four material elements.
Let's see. By combining the primary elements, i.e., "A", "B" and "C", produce the four elements, where "A" is associated with "B", "A" is associated with "C", "B "associates with" C "," A "is associated with" B "and" C ".
Thus we have four secondary elements. We also make an analogy with the primary colors, which are blue, yellow and red, that combined together form the four secondary colors, constituting the structure of the septenary manifestation (seven colors of the prism, seven musical notes, seven days a week seven deadly sins, etc...).
Thus, the higher will generate the ternary quaternary, with a combination of three with four, resulting in the twelve that reflect the different basic types of energy, or twelve human archetypes.
The three, four, seven and twelve numbers are sacred numbers, since summarize the constitution of the universe.
The pyramid, for example, is a splendid symbol, it is the ternary seated on a quaternary basis (I and II).
If we look at the pyramid over its apex, we shall see the division four equal parts (III). If these parts are opened (IV) will produce 12 angles (combinatorial analysis 3 of 4).
This results in the Maltese cross, or Templar cross (V), where the center is located the eye of God, who sees everything (omniscience), precisely the right eye of Christ, who is the central vanishing point in Leonardo painting (ternary on the quaternary).
In astrology there are three primary types (come Primary Cause is the Absolute = Universal) and four secondary. The three primary types show human behavior. The secondary indicate the human temperament. Human behavior is determined by the mode of expression (Cardinal, or the one who initiates an action. The fixed stabilizes the action. The mutable amend the action). It´s is the gunas of the Vedic tradition: Rajas, Tamas and Sattva, which make up matter.
We can represent these correlations through the diagram below, where the archetypes are formed considering the kinetic and static manifestation of matter and its modulation with three forms of behavior, producing the twelve basic types of temperaments, according to the diagram:
We speak of the qualifications of Leonardo that among them he held the astrological knowledge. It is precisely this knowledge that is being revealed in his work. He had deep knowledge of archetypes, detailing its characteristics, perfectly demonstrating the zodiac with the twelve signs of the Sun (Christ) as the center of events and creation, which becomes more evident if we observe that the apostles were arranged in four groups of three.
Thus, we have four groups, linking them to the four seasons of the year with an apostle for each sign.
Each station has three months and consequently three signs, starting in the spring, which is the vernal equinox in the northern hemisphere, with the months of March, April and May, related to Aries, Taurus and Gemini. The summer, with the months of June, July and August, related to Cancer, Leo and Virgo. The autumn, with the months of September, October and November, related to Libra, Scorpio and Sagittarius and winter, including December, January and February, related to Capricorn, Aquarius and Pisces.
Another way to demonstrate this is the figure we see a three-dimensional form, with the figure of Christ and the apostles to the center divided in the ecliptic (the Sun's equator).
In the zodiacal wheel, we have divided the signs forming axes, where a sign has his virtuous characteristics, and the difficulties are experienced in the sign placed in opposition. This refers to the principle of polarity, which says that everything has two poles, and they are similar in nature, varying; however the degree and that these polarities can be reconcilable (The Kybalion - Hermes Trismegistus).
To overcome the difficulties represented by shadow, there to seek the virtues that which is light, located in their opposition.
In reality what must determine between the two poles is the search for balance, i.e., the central point is that the figure of Christ. It is to live the way of temperance, the middle path. The consciousness.
Associating the different disciples (nominated by Leonardo himself), we have the representation in the figure below:
Jesus opens his left hand upward, feeding those placed his left. Are the seasons of spring and summer, where there is the birth and growth. The right hand side down in an act of absorption of energy and experiences accumulated by the autumn and winter seasons, related to maturity and death. This demonstrates the zodiacal cycle of birth and death. It is noted that the same correlation is made in that the light is projected to the left and the right shade Christ. The same polar duality is also represented in the mantle of Jesus delimiting the two hemispheres.
At the head of the table, to the extreme left side of Christ, we have the figure of Simon, representing Aries. Leonardo represents in the order of left to right, since the signs, as seen from the earth moving anti-clockwise.
Aries, the sign that opens the zodiac, is the pioneering characteristics, leadership, initiative, and this is exactly the role demonstrated by Simon, sit at the head table. Aries rules the head and the head of Simon are displayed prominently. The position of Simon's ascendancy over the others. But not only is the position occupied by Simon Aries denoting this role but what the theme suggests, because everything results from something spoken by Simon, as the other apostles are commenting, arguing and watching Simon himself, it was told.
If Aries is related to the self, the personality, Libra corresponds to the other, the relationship and the satisfaction of the need of the partner.
It is ideal for Libra living relationship in an atmosphere of peace, beauty, balance and harmony. The figure of John, diametrically opposed to Simon receives and absorbs the full impact of what was spoken, causing it to assume a posture of submission and retirement. John's hands are placed in position reconciliation. The figure actually has a female face, because Libra, seeking harmony is associated with receptive condition. The garment also refers to balance, in that is divided in two colors. Libra is ruled by Venus and Aries by Mars. This is the axis of individuality, and Aries representing the personification of the psychological ego and Libra the other with whom the ego relates.
Next we have Judas Thaddaeus. It is related to the sign of Taurus. Taurus is characterized by personal values, possessions, to have. Taurus has the need to develop a solid structure, have support. In the painting we see that is the only apostle to lean on the table, put the left arm using the table as a shield. The size of the Taurus is solid, strong. Taurus rules the neck and throat and this is very evident in the painting. The attitude of Judas is prudence. He argues and accepted.
This is the value axis and power, having one side of Taurus and Scorpio on the other.
Scorpio is represented by Judas Iscariot. Scorpio relates to the values ​​of the other, the collective values​​. Judas, for he was treasurer of the group. Scorpio is the sign of the depths, transformation, regeneration or death. Ruled by Pluto or Hades, represents all that is profound and transformative. The role of Judas Iscariot, as misinterpreted by the Christian traditions, was critical to the tragic outcome of the drama that is the passion and resurrection. Judas Iscariot somehow was the most loyal of the apostles, because he did fulfill the scriptures. He took the most painful mission of the group fulfilling the order to terminate the Sinedrion following the proper order of Jesus, when he said, "Judas, would you betray the Son of Man with a kiss? (Luke 22:48).
Actually Scorpio is the dynamo of the Zodiac, because it determines the transformation processes necessary for evolution of life. Judas Iscariot in the painting is presented as a spectator, watching the unfolding drama, examining the course of events. These are characteristics of Scorpio. Deeply analyzes, traces the strategies and act at the right time, accurately.
Next we have Matthew, related to Gemini whose ruler is Mercury. Gemini is related to the whole mental process and communication. The mental concrete, the process of accumulation of cognitive and applied knowledge to material reality. The natives of Gemini are slender and agile, jovial, looking curious and considering all possible variables facing situations. They can be considered, sometimes contradictory, unstable, and fickle. Matthew demonstrates some of these features.
He is communicating with Simon, looking at him, but arguing with hands and arms as if he had considering all aspects of what was said. May also appear an ambiguity between what was said and what the group thinks. As Gemini is related to communication and speech relates anatomically to the shoulders, arms and hands and this is what we also noted the figure of Matthew, who is also considered the reporter of Christ, like Mercury (Hermes), the messenger of Jupiter (Zeus).
We have here the axis of knowledge and wisdom. Peter opposes Matthew, representing Sagittarius. It is the sign associated with religion.
Sagittarius governs the higher subjects, abstract knowledge and spontaneously puts into the unknown. Sometimes it is brutish and can express themselves with excessive frankness. This corresponds to the spirit of Peter, who founded the Church, or the Christian religion, with Paul (Saulo de Tarsus).
The faith when taken to its ultimate consequences may be blind and in his defense all can be allowed. Peter's hand is holding a knife to defend his own ideals, not in a threatening attitude to John, by some want to believe, even argued by Dan Brown. Sagittarius, the centaur wields the bow with the arrow to be thrown. Anatomically Sagittarius governs the hips and this is evident in the painting. The right hand rests on it. The disposition of the body of Peter remembers the design of the symbol of Sagittarius.
In the sequel we have Philip, associated to Cancer.
Here we come to the bottom of the Zodiac, or Imum Coeli (Latin for "bottom of the sky"), is the axial point of the unconscious corresponding to all devotional manifestation, the maternal feeling, the origins and traditions. This relates to home and family and Philip embodies this archetype.
With distinctly feminine face, Philip takes his two hands to his chest, as if calling everyone as children to be reconciled. Indeed, precisely Cancer governs the breasts, stomach and uterus. Hands with arms also form a figure that resembles the claws of the crab is the cancer itself.
This is the time axis, with the past and destiny. The past is associated to cancer, the mother, and the future (Capricorn) with father. So Capricorn governs the destination, i.e., what we seek as a career, as the goal of life and social role as we seek and desire recognition. It concerns the authority.
So, Andrew as Capricorn is clearly a Capricorn attitude. Capricorn is cautious and practical and could be cold and pessimistic. As Philip says "come to me," Andrew seems to say "depart from me", because to assume the responsibilities is to calculate and plan what should be done.
Capricorn corresponds anatomically to the entire bone structure, knees, skin. In painting Andrew is the one who has hands with bony fingers, demonstrating the bone structure. Alongside Philip, we see James the Less, related to Lion.
Leo is sovereign. Charismatic, flashy, creative, dramatic, seeks recognition through the exhibition. It is ruled by the Sun and radiates its light.
Leo governs the heart that is analogous to body sun. These characteristics are clearly incorporated to James Minor. Surely he is the most beautiful scenic figure painting. James to take the attitude of open arms, exposing the light, standing next to Christ himself.
Demonstrates an open chest, the heart of generosity, a typically leonine behavior, which sometimes comes to be naïve and centered on vanity and self-centeredness.
This is the axis of the power of creation. If Leo is the maintenance of creation, Aquarius is change and renewal which is also creation. Leo governs the power of the king, the monarch. Aquariums are the collective power, the group, society. This axis is that occur the struggle for power.
Aquarius, with Uranus the ruler promotes all sorts of abrupt changes, meaning always drastic changes. Often in the name of innovation is deposed monarch for the establishment of a new regime, to then become similar with the previous model. It is what is observed with the Aquarian revolutions like the French Revolution, with the deposition of Louis XVI. Napoleon was later crowned as emperor (Leo). Recently, we have the Cuban Revolution, with the deposition of Dictator Fulgencio Batista and Fidel ruling as King-Dictator.
Aquarius is associated in this way, the actions of libertarian, to rebellion, radicalism because it is engaged with human values, such as progressive values, but it is impersonal.
Analyzing the figure of James the Greater, we see that it does not appear in the foreground. He does not expose himself alone, but through the group, through diplomacy and see: Aquarius is the sign of friendship and we see James hugging Andrew and Peter, demonstrating that the strength comes from the group and not on individual attitudes.
Finally, we have Thomas, representing the Virgin.
The Virgo is related to the practicality, analysis and criticism. It also ruled by Mercury, but here the mental focuses on utilitarian and practical application to be given to all things. For that reason they questioned him, details and discriminate. Virgos is in extreme need to feel useful and provide their service, but to do so he needs to understand the cause of things. Within these characteristics we see the figure of Thomas. Thomas needs to see to believe.
Thomas in his act of inquisitor asks to Christ himself, in that puts her right in front of Jesus forefinger. As Virgo tends toward shyness and humility, Thomas is also placed in a position away from the table.
This is the axis of the serve, having Virgin correspond to service pragmatic and Pisces, the humanist service, sometimes not very clear and perceptible, which may lead Pisces to live in a state of unreality.
Pisces is associated with the dreamer inspiration and understanding. Are compassionate, emotional, intuitive and romantic, but for this state of contemplation, if not well channeled, can lead to evasion and fanciful attitudes, having difficulty perceiving reality.
Bartholomew the Apostle is which closes the zodiacal circle. He is on the other side of the table. It clearly demonstrates the Piscean characteristics. It seems that his vision is directed to a point that goes beyond the environment portrayed, a point diffuse and may not realize exactly what is going on. Does not speak, only observes, contemplates and accepts. Pisces rules the feet are just his feet, interlaced, which are illuminated under the table. Pisces has great intuitive potential, but needs to know how he can transform his nature, his sense of serving humanity in a more practical and constructive way.
Thus we come complete cycle of the zodiac, sounding clear that the message displayed in this painting, as in other works of genius. It conveys much more than seemingly suggests.
True knowledge was hidden in encrypted form by the need to preserve it, protecting it from the misunderstanding of those who thought they possessed the truth. What is hidden, veiled, does not mean it is not to be seen. It is only unveiled to those with eyes to see. Leonardo leaves us that genuine arcane wisdom was, is and will be the knowledge which guides humanity toward enlightenment through awareness.
Astrology, by the psychological approach is a process that allows us to analyze, understanding paradoxes, our conflicts, our shadow, our projections, and perhaps, through self-knowledge, doing the reintegration of contents for consciousness, so we can promote the process of transforming into true human, and better integrated with the sacred.
The path continues to be followed.
Astrology shall be understood in this view, showing that the splendor of diversity means that we may above all be tolerant and compassionate, understand the nature of the differences and accept them as a manifestation of the same source of life.
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2023.02.28 11:53 dreammedia1 Get your funnel built from the comfort of your home in Florida, United States

Get your funnel built from the comfort of your home in Florida, United States
You must have a solid virtual presence if you're a lifestyle coach, motivational coach, business coach or SME coach, or a small/mid-size entrepreneur in Florida. And a crucial part of that online presence is a sales or lead magnet funnel. A funnel or a Sales Funnel is a marketing strategy that guides potential customers through a series of steps, from awareness to purchase. It's an essential tool for converting leads into sales and increasing revenue. But building a sales funnel can be time-consuming and challenging, especially if you need to familiarize yourself with the process. That's where we come in. Our digital marketing agency specializes in building custom sales funnels for businesses in Florida, USA. We can help you get your funnel up and running from the comfort of your home.

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Funnel services
From Click to Customer: A Comprehensive Strategy for Turning Leads into Sales with Lead Magnet Funnels.

One of the most important goals of an entrepreneur is to turn leads into paying customers. Although there are different ways to accomplish this, lead magnet funnels have become one of the most effective tools in the online marketing toolkit. In this blog, we'll explore a comprehensive strategy for maximizing the conversion rates of your lead magnet funnel and turning more leads into paying customers.

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Step 4 - Analyzing Your Results and Making Improvements: Finally, it's crucial to analyze your results and improve your lead magnet funnel over time. It can involve tracking metrics like conversion, open, and click-through rates and making adjustments based on what you learn. For example, suppose that a specific landing page is not converting as well as you'd like. In that case, you can test different headlines, copy, or images to see if you can improve its performance.

By following the comprehensive strategy outlined in this blog, you can turn more of your leads into paying customers and achieve tremendous success in your online marketing efforts. From creating a high-quality lead magnet to designing an effective funnel and implementing email marketing strategies, the key to success is taking a comprehensive and data-driven approach. So if this makes sense, start implementing these ideas today and watch your conversion rates soar!

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United States, NC 27523.
Contact Us: +91-9990458535
Mail id: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])

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2023.02.26 04:25 GoGiantRobot What Are the Best Religion Channels on Youtube? A Guide to ReligionTube

ReligionTube is a colloquially term for a small group of religious academic on Youtube that frequently collaborate with one another. All of these channels cover many different world religions, but I'll note if their their channel has a specialty.
In my opinion, the core group of religion channels consists of five channels run by academics. I'll also list a bunch of other channels I think are worth checking out.
I've tried to make sure not to include any channels that associate with the alt-right, but I haven't reviewed every video of every channel. I'll provide a list of some of the major alt-right youtubers to avoid at the end of the post.
If you have any suggestions of channels to add or remove from this list, leave a comment and I'll update the list periodically. There are many religions I don't have much knowledge of, so if you have recommended channels for other religions, I'll be happy to add them to the list.
If you aren't sure where to start, Religion for Breakfast has a playlist of Religion 101 videos that are very beginner friendly.
ReligionTube academic group (Good for beginners)
Christian Leftism
Queer and Transgender Christianity
Christian Mysticism
Christian (General information)
Philosophy / Spirituality (General)
Celtic Pagan
Pagan, Witch (Other)
Esotericism, Occultism
Herbalism (Always consult a doctor before experimenting with herbs)
Channels to Avoid!
All of these channels have known ties either to white nationalist and neo-Nazi groups or dangerous and manipulative cults. We are not singling these channels out because we disagree with their religious beliefs, but because they are known fascists and abusers.
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2023.02.23 01:05 ThrowRA_0112358 Is this just a lull in my [29M] relationship with my gf [31F] of 1.5 years, or more?

tl;dr Gf hasn't done anything terribly wrong, and I feel like the bad guy for even having these thoughts, but at the 1.5 year mark I'm feeling dissatisfied and having doubts about whether she's the right partner for me.
I apologize if this becomes a novel (future me: It did, I'm sorry), but here goes something -
A little backstory may be useful. I met my girlfriend (we'll call her "Kate") a little over a year and a half ago. It started off well - we have similar interests, similar senses of humor, intimacy was good, and when we talked about things like family and long-term goals, it seemed like we were pretty well aligned on "the big picture."
The circumstances of us becoming "official" were messy. After a couple of months dating, I asked Kate to be exclusive, at which point she broke down and came clean that, when she had been away on a "friends' trip" the weekend prior, she had hooked up with an ex, and had been talking to him in the lead-up to it (he lives in a different state). I walked away at that point, but she came back, asking if we could try and make us work, and I ultimately agreed. Terms included full NC, complicated by an intermingled childhood friend group, but she has honored that commitment. There were growing pains, it led me to trying therapy for the first time in my life (Helpful! Still doing it monthly.), but we've gotten past that and she has never since given me any reason to feel insecure.
We have good times together. We have date nights pretty much weekly. We've gone on quite a few trips and have some wonderful memories from those. We have inside jokes and common interests and a good rapport. She tells me she loves me and I can tell that she means it, and I love her too. There have been a few times where, unprovoked, she's gotten particularly teary-eyed and explained that it's just because she loves me so much and appreciates me in her life.
Over the past couple of months, I feel something lacking.
Kate works in a freelance-esque industry that, while in-person, isn't a standard 9-5 (mornings and evenings). She's great at her job, and works as hard as anyone I know, but it's an industry where only a few top people really make "good" money, and she's still not one of them. We don't get to spend a whole lot of time together during the week despite the fact that I work from home and we live very close by, and she has her fair share of external stressors (finances, schedule), compounded by the fact that she deals with anxiety (actively treated).
In recent months, the physical intimacy in our relationship has decreased noticeably. In my two previous long-ish adult relationships (>1 year), this was a sign of the beginning of the end, so I brought it up with Kate. She first got upset, asking if this was me having doubts about our relationship (I wasn't seriously at the time). She explained that her libido had been low lately, she wasn't entirely sure why, but she didn't think it was related to anything I was or wasn't doing. She was still having a good time in the moment, but her "on" switch was just harder to nudge lately. I asked if there was anything else I could do, but she didn't have any immediate solutions.
I'm sure stress played a role. Kate began a new job that required some additional training before starting, which led to an even crazier schedule than normal. I tried to help out where I could with errands and the like, and Kate did show a lot of appreciation for my help.
I want to respect that Kate has a lot on her plate, but lately the "energy balance" of the relationship has felt very one-sided, and the drop-off in physical intimacy is part of that. Since we spoke, while she made an effort to initiate once, the frequency hasn't actually changed. I know I'm not "entitled" to sex, but I think acknowledging an unfulfilled need is different from "demanding" sex. I've felt a little guilty about where that line is drawn, too, but I can't ignore it, and I'll admit the "7 year itch" has been very intrusive as of late.
A lot of the maintenance of the relationship like planning activities, scheduling time to be together, etc, has been left up to me lately. And unscripted, spontaneous expressions of love - a random note, showing up unannounced, or hell, even a suggestive text or photo - have never really been in Kate's wheelhouse from the start, so those haven't been things I've had to fall back on. I told her early on that those were the sorts of things I liked and appreciated, but they never really materialized, and I just let it go.
There are other red flags in particular areas of our lives that would make this post even more obnoxiously long (particularly related to her local friends and some of the bad behaviors that she gets caught up in when she hangs out with them), but that's cut for time. More important is the long-term vision.
I mentioned above that early on, Kate and I talked about goals and family. One of my long-standing goals, even before Kate, is to get out of the city we currently live in and move somewhere that's cheaper and a bit less crowded; not the suburbs, just a smaller city. I told Kate about this when we first started dating, and at the time, she expressed her agreement, saying that she thought she would "thrive" in a less busy environment. But, her tune has changed, now saying, "I just don't know if I'm done with (current city). Besides, my friends are here." She has clusters of friends in a couple of other, smaller cities (as do I), and I've offered those up as compromise options, but she hasn't really offered a lot of enthusiasm when I've broached the subject. People and priorities can change; or maybe she just told me what I wanted to hear when we first started dating because it wasn't remotely "real" yet. I'm not ready to move this second, or even necessarily this year, but her timeline is so much more vague that it's concerning to me that she may never be "ready."
For all this having been said, we have a lot of fun together. Even our difficult conversations never turn to arguments. I know that she cares about me, and in the past she has tried to make concessions for concerns that I've brought up. But I worry that this is unfair to her. Kate really never asks for "more" from me, yet I have brought things up quite a few times now. And while the results are inconsistent, I do see that she puts in effort. But I'm growing tired of feeling like I have to "coach" my girlfriend on how I want to feel loved, while simultaneously I feel like it's not fair to her that I'm even doing it in the first place. Maybe I need someone for whom it comes more naturally. Maybe she needs someone who's happy to receive her love in the way she naturally gives it, or maybe there's someone who will inspire her to show affection more readily and consistently.
When I'm with her, these feelings subside, at least a little bit, and I'm reminded that I do care about her. She has a very down to earth personality. She likes to be held. She knows my personality and the things I'm passionate about, and while she doesn't always have a lot to say on those subjects, she humors me. We have inside jokes and regular spots and mini-traditions. I'm not particularly afraid of ending it when we could have made things work and being single again; it wouldn't be the first time, and I've managed to love again. But I am scared of ending it when we could have made things work and I hurt her unnecessarily. My recount is very one-sided and related to the matter and hand, but she's not a terrible person. I know she cares for me; she's just more tell, don't show, when I could really use a little more show, don't tell. But I've tried to communicate before and it just doesn't seem to stick.
We're rapidly approaching, or might already be at, the "shit or get off the pot" point in the relationship, and I'm just at a loss. Is it stupid, or selfish, or even manipulative of me to be looking for more from her? Is it even possible? I've spoken with my therapist, and her advice, as always, was to have the conversation. I've spoken with 3 of my closest friends, and their advice ranged from "That's going to be tough to navigate" to "End it." I know we need to talk, but I don't know how, when, or even what I'm going to say.
If you've made it this far, you're an absolute legend. Thank you for opinions, advice, wisdom of personal experience. Anything would be helpful.
submitted by ThrowRA_0112358 to relationship_advice [link] [comments]

2023.02.23 00:30 DecideTime22 Is this just a lull in my [29M] relationship with my gf [31F] of 1.5 years, or more?

tl;dr Gf hasn't done anything terribly wrong, and I feel like the bad guy for even having these thoughts, but at the 1.5 year mark I'm feeling dissatisfied and having doubts about whether she's the right partner for me.
I apologize if this becomes a novel (future me: It did, I'm sorry), but here goes something -
A little backstory may be useful. I met my girlfriend (we'll call her "Kate") a little over a year and a half ago. It started off well - we have similar interests, similar senses of humor, intimacy was good, and when we talked about things like family and long-term goals, it seemed like we were pretty well aligned on "the big picture."
The circumstances of us becoming "official" were messy. After a couple of months dating, I asked Kate to be exclusive, at which point she broke down and came clean that, when she had been away on a "friends' trip" the weekend prior, she had hooked up with an ex, and had been talking to him in the lead-up to it (he lives in a different state). I walked away at that point, but she came back, asking if we could try and make us work, and I ultimately agreed. Terms included full NC, complicated by an intermingled childhood friend group, but she has honored that commitment. There were growing pains, it led me to trying therapy for the first time in my life (Helpful! Still doing it monthly.), but we've gotten past that and she has never since given me any reason to feel insecure.
We have good times together. We have date nights pretty much weekly. We've gone on quite a few trips and have some wonderful memories from those. We have inside jokes and common interests and a good rapport. She tells me she loves me and I can tell that she means it, and I love her too. There have been a few times where, unprovoked, she's gotten particularly teary-eyed and explained that it's just because she loves me so much and appreciates me in her life.
Over the past couple of months, I feel something lacking.
Kate works in a freelance-esque industry that, while in-person, isn't a standard 9-5 (mornings and evenings). She's great at her job, and works as hard as anyone I know, but it's an industry where only a few top people really make "good" money, and she's still not one of them. We don't get to spend a whole lot of time together during the week despite the fact that I work from home and we live very close by, and she has her fair share of external stressors (finances, schedule), compounded by the fact that she deals with anxiety (actively treated).
In recent months, the physical intimacy in our relationship has decreased noticeably. In my two previous long-ish adult relationships (>1 year), this was a sign of the beginning of the end, so I brought it up with Kate. She first got upset, asking if this was me having doubts about our relationship (I wasn't seriously at the time). She explained that her libido had been low lately, she wasn't entirely sure why, but she didn't think it was related to anything I was or wasn't doing. She was still having a good time in the moment, but her "on" switch was just harder to nudge lately. I asked if there was anything else I could do, but she didn't have any immediate solutions.
I'm sure stress played a role. Kate began a new job that required some additional training before starting, which led to an even crazier schedule than normal. I tried to help out where I could with errands and the like, and Kate did show a lot of appreciation for my help.
I want to respect that Kate has a lot on her plate, but lately the "energy balance" of the relationship has felt very one-sided, and the drop-off in physical intimacy is part of that. Since we spoke, while she made an effort to initiate once, the frequency hasn't actually changed. I know I'm not "entitled" to sex, but I think acknowledging an unfulfilled need is different from "demanding" sex. I've felt a little guilty about where that line is drawn, too, but I can't ignore it, and I'll admit the "7 year itch" has been very intrusive as of late.
A lot of the maintenance of the relationship like planning activities, scheduling time to be together, etc, has been left up to me lately. And unscripted, spontaneous expressions of love - a random note, showing up unannounced, or hell, even a suggestive text or photo - have never really been in Kate's wheelhouse from the start, so those haven't been things I've had to fall back on. I told her early on that those were the sorts of things I liked and appreciated, but they never really materialized, and I just let it go.
There are other red flags in particular areas of our lives that would make this post even more obnoxiously long (particularly related to her local friends and some of the bad behaviors that she gets caught up in when she hangs out with them), but that's cut for time. More important is the long-term vision.
I mentioned above that early on, Kate and I talked about goals and family. One of my long-standing goals, even before Kate, is to get out of the city we currently live in and move somewhere that's cheaper and a bit less crowded; not the suburbs, just a smaller city. I told Kate about this when we first started dating, and at the time, she expressed her agreement, saying that she thought she would "thrive" in a less busy environment. But, her tune has changed, now saying, "I just don't know if I'm done with (current city). Besides, my friends are here." She has clusters of friends in a couple of other, smaller cities (as do I), and I've offered those up as compromise options, but she hasn't really offered a lot of enthusiasm when I've broached the subject. People and priorities can change; or maybe she just told me what I wanted to hear when we first started dating because it wasn't remotely "real" yet. I'm not ready to move this second, or even necessarily this year, but her timeline is so much more vague that it's concerning to me that she may never be "ready."
For all this having been said, we have a lot of fun together. Even our difficult conversations never turn to arguments. I know that she cares about me, and in the past she has tried to make concessions for concerns that I've brought up. But I worry that this is unfair to her. Kate really never asks for "more" from me, yet I have brought things up quite a few times now. And while the results are inconsistent, I do see that she puts in effort. But I'm growing tired of feeling like I have to "coach" my girlfriend on how I want to feel loved, while simultaneously I feel like it's not fair to her that I'm even doing it in the first place. Maybe I need someone for whom it comes more naturally. Maybe she needs someone who's happy to receive her love in the way she naturally gives it, or maybe there's someone who will inspire her to show affection more readily and consistently.
When I'm with her, these feelings subside, at least a little bit, and I'm reminded that I do care about her. She has a very down to earth personality. She likes to be held. She knows my personality and the things I'm passionate about, and while she doesn't always have a lot to say on those subjects, she humors me. We have inside jokes and regular spots and mini-traditions. I'm not particularly afraid of ending it when we could have made things work and being single again; it wouldn't be the first time, and I've managed to love again. But I am scared of ending it when we could have made things work and I hurt her unnecessarily. My recount is very one-sided and related to the matter and hand, but she's not a terrible person. I know she cares for me; she's just more tell, don't show, when I could really use a little more show, don't tell. But I've tried to communicate before and it just doesn't seem to stick.
We're rapidly approaching, or might already be at, the "shit or get off the pot" point in the relationship, and I'm just at a loss. Is it stupid, or selfish, or even manipulative of me to be looking for more from her? Is it even possible? I've spoken with my therapist, and her advice, as always, was to have the conversation. I've spoken with 3 of my closest friends, and their advice ranged from "That's going to be tough to navigate" to "End it." I know we need to talk, but I don't know how, when, or even what I'm going to say.
If you've made it this far, you're an absolute legend. Thank you for opinions, advice, personal anecdotes, whatever you have. Anything would be helpful.
submitted by DecideTime22 to relationships [link] [comments]

2023.02.20 20:34 continentalgrip Within 30 minutes, balance improved and I was able to lift my essentially immobilized right arm straight up above my head for the first time in several years

(Edit: AH well here's the paper as opposed to copy paste. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/319094478_The_cause_of_multiple_sclerosis_is_autoimmune_attack_of_adenosyltransferase_thereby_limiting_adenosylcobalamin_production )
Paywall. Sorry about formatting. Guy says he sort of cured MS with adenosylcobalamin injections.
abstract The pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) begins with an infection by a bacterium from the class of bacteria that produce and utilize adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) and possess an adenosyl transferase enzyme (ATR); these bacteria are the exogenous antigens that cause MS. Human ATR is homologous to bacterial ATR and B cells produce anti-ATR antibodies as an autoimmune response thereby reducing the concentration of ATR and thus limiting production of AdoCbl, one of the two bioactive forms of vitamin B12. The next step in MS pathogenesis is a period of subclinical AdoCbl deficiency over a period of many years resulting in production of odd-carbon-number fatty acids that are incorporated into myelin rendering it antigenic. The next step in MS pathogenesis is breach of the blood brain barrier thereby introducing leukocytes into the brain’s blood supply resulting in T cell attack of antigenic myelin. All epidemiological clusters are regions wherein the major agricultural products are legumes that produce a high percentage of odd-carbon-number fatty acids and contain symbiotic rhizobia type bacteria in root nodules and in the soil. This novel etiological hypothesis is called ‘‘multiple sclerosis due to adenosylcobalamin deficiency” (MS-AdoCbl). Creation of realistic animal models based on the MS-AdoCbl hypothesis is presented. Methods for testing predictions made by the MS-AdoCbl hypothesis are described.
Introduction Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system (CNS), and the peripheral nervous system (PNS), (though difficult to distinguish from CNS causation), characterized by demyelination, formation of plaque lesions, damage to mitochondria with reduction of the ATP concentration, axonal degeneration, and with different forms or stages of MS defined by apparent clinical signs; the history of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been presented in introductory chapters of recent texts; Jean-Martin Charcot published the first comprehensive discussion in 1865 L’ Union Med 25:451–457, 467–472 (over 150 years ago) [1,2]. Attention to mitochondrial damage and its effects are more recent [3]. There has been much speculation on its etiology, thus books and journal articles typically state that the molecular events underlying MS are not known. Nevertheless, discussions on the possible etiology of MS and in depth speculation of its causes are available [4,5]. The MS-AdoCbl hypothesis The MS-AdoCbl hypothesis advocates that multiple sclerosis (MS) is caused by autoimmune attack of ATP:cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase (referred to as adenosyltransferase or ATR) that converts cobalamins to the bioactive form 50 -deoxy-50 -adenosyl cobamide (adenosylcobalamin, Coenzyme B12 or AdoCbl). When the concentration of ATR is reduced the production of AdoCbl is limited resulting in metabolic changes that are pathological to the nervous system by causing myelin to become antigenic and this pathogenesis requires many years to develop. Introduction of leukocytes into the brain by breach of the blood brain barrier (or by other means) initiates immune attack of myelin causing the clinical signs of MS to manifest. Aspects of MS pathogenesis are related to deficiency of AdoCbl. The development of the MS-AdoCbl hypothesis Consideration of the similarity between subacute combined degeneration (SCD) and MS was instrumental in development of the MS-AdoCbl hypothesis and the existence of epidemiological hotspots argued for an exogenous antigen responsible for the development of MS. Bacteria that produce AdoCbl have ATR enzymes that are homologous to human ATR and thus infection https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2017.08.011 0306-9877/ 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). ⇑ Corresponding author. E-mail address: [email protected] URL: http://cdsrllc.com Medical Hypotheses 109 (2017) 29–37 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Medical Hypotheses journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/mehy with such bacteria and immune response to them is the reason for MS being an autoimmune disease. The primary autoimmune attack is attack of ATR, located in mitochondria, resulting in production of odd-carbon-number compounds that are incorporated into myelin causing it to become antigenic; this would result from subclinical AdoCbl deficiency, extended over many years and accompanied by myelin turnover resulting in incorporation of antigenic compounds into myelin. Subsequently, a secondary immune attack of myelin occurs. The MS-AdoCbl hypothesis presents a new perspective for the etiology of MS since current views focus on attack of myelin as the primary immune response responsible for MS. This novel etiological hypothesis shall subsequently be referred to as the ‘‘multiple sclerosis due to adenosylcobalamin deficiency” (MS-AdoCbl) hypothesis, and was first published in the specification of US Patent Application No. 12/460,946 on Jan. 27, 2011. US Patent 8,691,790 (Patent790) describing therapy of MS issued April 8, 2014. The MS-AdoCbl hypothesis is the medical hypothesis and thesis of this article. A test of MS-AdoCbl hypothesis was therapy of MS with AdoCbl and success of the scoping experiments in therapy was the stimulus for writing a patent. This testing has been conducted on one MS patient for over ten years strongly supporting the hypothesis by providing substantial recovery from CNS symptoms of MS. AdoCbl therapy benefits PNS functions though not providing complete recovery nor does it provide recovery from mitochondrial damage and reduced ATP production.
Personal testing of the MS-AdoCbl hypothesis with AdoCbl therapy I was diagnosed with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) in 1992 by Dr. J.S. Wolinsky who discussed MS with me regarding SCD presenting clinical signs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) similar to MS, although only SCD is responsive to B12 therapy. By 1997 stage change to secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) was apparent. CNS and PNS symptoms progressed to include failure of working memory (with retention of less than five seconds) impaired cognition, slow processing, scanning speech, dystonia, paroxysmal spasms, gait disturbance, spasticity, dysarthria, loss of balance with frequent falls, heat stress, and other effects typical of MS [6]. As a clinically definite MS patient it was possible to test therapeutic methods on myself. Evaluation of therapy was a direct test of the proposed medical hypothesis. On 15 August 2006 I determined to pursue MS research myself and began to study the literature for MS. On 26 December 2006 I conceived an etiological hypothesis involving adenosyltransferase enzyme which converts cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) to AdoCbl, one of two bioactive forms of B12. I posited that the concentration of the adenosyltransferase enzyme (ATR) becomes reduced following autoimmune attack, thereby limiting production of AdoCbl, and leading to metabolic changes that are the initial pathogenesis of MS. It is worth noting that I found it necessary at that time to write on a notepad whatever was being considered, because my shortterm recall was so short. Given the etiological hypothesis that AdoCbl deficiency causes MS, a test of the hypothesis was evaluation of therapeutic benefit from AdoCbl parenterally administered, i.e., bypassing the need for the ATR enzyme. I determined to test my hypothesis by self-administration of AdoCbl. No U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) grade, FDA approved injectable AdoCbl exists, though multiple sources of 97% AdoCbl were available for research purposes in vitro or with animals. A 3 mg/ml solution of AdoCbl in lactated Ringer’s solution was prepared and 1 ml was self-injected subcutaneously (sc) in the thigh 28 January 2007. The effects were pronounced and rapid. Within 5 min, recovery of memory and other improved cognitive abilities were apparent and my speech went from slow and labored to normal. Within 30 min, balance improved and I was able to lift my essentially immobilized right arm straight up above my head for the first time in several years. These effects, occurring mere minutes after injection, could only have resulted from direct action on nerves and not by means of anti-immune effects or myelin repair. Significantly, the effects described here of a single AdoCbl injection seemed to support the etiological hypothesis; the partial recovery from MS symptoms ostensibly resulted from neuroenhancement. No report of experimental AdoCbl therapy with humans for any reason was found. The patent literature showed that AdoCbl therapy had never been used and this led to the patent application and prosecution. For over 11 years, I carried out literature and laboratory research on my hypothesis, including regular injections (3–10 mg 5 weekly) of AdoCbl totaling ca. 9 g in 11 years. The results of this work show that AdoCbl therapy is effective, even life-changing, for treatment of a SPMS patient with therapy rationally based on the MSAdoCbl hypothesis. Epidemiology of MS In any study of the cause of a disease, it is important to assess common factors in identified clusters or ‘hotspots.’ Islands in the North Atlantic, including Iceland, Faroe, Orkney, and Shetland Islands constitute such epidemiological hotspots. Orkney Islands, had, in epidemiological studies conducted in 1974–1977, 309 cases of MS per 100,000 persons; in the Shetland Islands there were 184 cases of MS per 100,000 in 1974–1977; Orkney and Shetland islands represent the highest incidence rates for MS anywhere in the world and they also have the most cases of optic neuritis presenting as the initial symptom subsequently diagnosed as MS [7]. The agricultural products on these islands are pea, faba bean, lintil, grass pea, and chickpea all of which are legumes with rhizobia class bacteria in root nodules. [8] This is exceptional and may be the only location in the world having five or more major agricultural products that are legumes. These legumes form the staple diet of the islands and are predicted to contain a high percentage of odd-carbon-number fatty acids; this has not been specifically researched due to time constraints and could provide support for the MS-AdoCbl hypothesis once investigated. There is need for creation of a table of foods with percent odd-carbon-number fatty acids ranked from high to low content. The MS-AdoCbl hypothesis includes the concept that exogenous antigens responsible for eliciting the autoimmunogenic process producing MS are ATR-like enzymes contained in cobalamin- producing bacteria. In ‘‘Status of Cereal Cultivation in the North Atlantic Region” a map appears (page 12 of said article) showing these islands and describing cool weather legume cereal grains (likely containing odd-carbon-number fatty acids, etc.) as their principal agricultural products [9]. Another epidemiological hotspot, Olmstead County, Minnesota, with 160 cases per 100,000 is 2–3 times higher than the average in locations at that latitude [10]. Soybeans are the major agricultural product in Olmstead County with about 72,000 harvested acres of soybean [11]. Soybeans are legumes and Bradyrhizobium japonicum is the most common symbiotic bacteria [12]. The combination of local food rich in odd-carbon-number fatty acids that are legumes are predicted by the MS-AdoCbl hypothesis as factors producing epidemiological hotspots; the lowered AdoCbl concentration produces antigenic myelin from oddcarbon-number fatty acids. A bacterial PduO enzyme, homologous to human ATR, should produce a pronounced autoimmune response. Rhizobium and other bacteria found in legumes are predicted by (instrumental in the development of) the MS-AdoCbl hypothesis and contain conserved bacterial ATRs. Any cobalamin producing bacteria can be the exogenous antigen causing MS
although some bacteria are more efficient at causing MS. This multiplicity of exogenous antigens makes it difficult to identify a single bacterium as a highly significant exogenous antigen. Rhizobia bacteria have many ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, e.g. Rhizobium leguminosarum has 183 ABC operons [13]. A study of bacterial genomes for bacteria found in legumes contains a phylogenetic tree of Rhizobial (and related bacteria) is presented (Fig. 1, pg. 616) in a study by Maclean et al. [14]. Nodule-producing bacteria are present in the soil even when crops other than legumes are grown in rotation. A person incurring a cut in such a field would be infected with bacteria common to legumes. There are many such bacteria possessing ATR-like enzymes, and each enzyme might be antigenic producing an immune response and antibodies that are cross-reactive to human ATR. Homology between a bacterial and a human ATR produces a stronger autoimmune response. Any bacterial IgG might or might not bind ATR strongly though a collection of IgGs have a cumulative effect and might bind ATR at different locations. Soil introduced into a cut will contain many different bacteria, not a single bacterium. The cumulative effect of infection with multiple cobalamin producing bacteria makes it difficult to identify a single exogenous antigen responsible for the development of MS. What is known, though, is that the ATR-like enzymes are from the class of bacteria producing AdoCbl. The higher risk in colder climates may be related to cobalamin metabolism and trafficking or differences in mitochondria since ATR is located within the inner membranes of mitochondria. Hypothetically a change in cobalamin metabolism (especially related to mitochondria) and trafficking occurs at puberty. These changes would be present in all persons as a function of average ambient temperatures and not MS patients alone. Possibly, the lower risk of MS in tropical regions is related to mitochondrial membrane thickness and mitochondrial membrane permeability investigations are needed. Another critical requirement in MS is BBB breach, which allows leukocytes with immune memory into the CNS blood system. No study of the BBB in relation to cobalamin trafficking proteins has yet appeared. Such a study, particularly one regarding populations residing at different latitudes, is obviously needed. Etiology of MS The MS-AdoCbl hypothesis describes a completely new understanding of the fundamental cause of MS. Rather than the current theories positing a generalized autoimmune assault on myelin brought on by some unknown immune-provoking event, the MSAdoCbl hypothesis cites autoimmune attack of ATR, reducing its concentration, and causing deficiency of AdoCbl as the main culprit initiating MS pathogenesis. The two bioactive forms of B12 are AdoCbl and methylcobalamin (MeCbl). MS pathogenesis follows AdoCbl deficiency which induces a cascade of metabolic changes wherein myelin becomes antigenic following metabolic turnover with antigenic structures incorporated into myelin. Metabolic turnover of polyphosphoinositides in myelin was studied by Eichberg and Dawson [15]. Davison and Gregson reported that turnover of a small fraction of myelin is rapid and the remaining fraction of myelin is metabolically stable with slow turnover [16]. Optic neuritis is a common presenting symptom and optic nerves likely have a rapid turnover rate; turnover could be studied with carbon-13 enriched foods followed by serial MRI. Development of antigenic myelin may take years to occur during which time the changes are subclinical. At some point the BBB happens to be breached allowing leukocytes to enter the blood supply in the brain and introducing leukocytes as markers in the CSF; the BBB breach may be the major immune provoking event. Normally, ATR with an adenosyl group from ATP converts B12 into AdoCbl. B12 deficiency can produce neurologic symptoms in SCD, similar to the symptoms of RRMS [17]. Left untreated, progressive spastic paraparesis and CNS impairments develop, with reversibility dependent upon the time elapsed before intervention with B12 [18]. Multiple sclerosis and B12 deficiency share many symptoms, including vision loss, muscle weakness, gait disturbances and cognitive impairment. Cobalamins are involved in myelin formation and repair while exerting immunomodulatory and neurotrophic effects. MRI studies of MS and SCD patients show striking similarities. B12 deficiency causes reduction of both bioactive forms, AdoCbl and MeCbl [19]. The MS-AdoCbl hypothesis predicts that the clinical signs of SCD and MS will be largely identical, having AdoCbl insufficiency as the basis for each. Aspects of MS are also indicative of a disturbance of MeCbl metabolism in the CNS, affecting anabolism, though slower to manifest clinical signs than AdoCbl deficiency and affecting protein synthesis and red blood cell maturation. This, according to MS-AdoCbl hypothesis, is because they both result from AdoCbl deficiency. If a SCD patient remains deficient in B12, the symptoms that manifest become similar to those of RRMS, again, for the simple reason that SCD and MS both result from an identical cause, deficiency of AdoCbl. If a SCD patient were not treated with B12 for years, the symptoms that would manifest are similar to symptoms of progressive MS; the reason SCD and progressive MS symptoms are similar is due to the cause for each being identical, deficiency of AdoCbl for an extended period of time. RRMS typically becomes SPMS and thus the two disease states are linked. Events precipitating AdoCbl deficiency in MS and SCD differ however, as shown in Fig. 1. In MS, autoimmune attack reduces the concentration of ATR and consequently AdoCbl. Because the clinical signs of SCD are easily recognized, laboratory tests are ordered without a long delay, revealing the underlying B12 deficiency, for which B12 is administered as a 1 mg intramuscular (im) injection [20]. This avenue of delivery has historically been preferred, possibly in order to take advantage of muscle tissue that provides a kind of timed release of the vitamin. From the perspective of MS-AdoCbl hypothesis and experimental MS therapy a sc injection between 4 mg and 8 mg AdoCbl might be preferred to rapidly supply AdoCbl to mitochondria and nerves. This also addresses the parallel requirement to replenish depleted cobalamin stores; no article discussing the importance of replenishing cobalamin stores in the liver or other tissues has been identified. The MS-AdoCbl hypothesis predicts depletion of stored AdoCbl, e.g., in the liver, a finding that awaits assessment in necroscopy liver samples from healthy individuals and MS patients, a key point. Paradoxically, administration of B12 is not helpful for a MS patient although SCD produces a similar MRI, since ATR deficiency prevents production of bioactive AdoCbl regardless of the concentration of B12 present. In therapy of SCD with B12, a common clinical mistake is to co-administer folic acid, which while lessening anemia, causes spinal cord lesions [21]. Administration
of folic acid further decreases the AdoCbl concentration by directing B12 along the pathway to MeCbl, rather than along the pathway to AdoCbl. Schubert and Hill published the crystal structure of ATP-bound human ATP:cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase (ATR) along with bacterial PduO ATR enzymes showing its conserved AdoCbl binding sites and extensive homology, as shown in Fig. 2, and including an ATP binding site [22]. (This was isoform 239 K having lysine at position 239.) There are three types of adenosyltransferases (i.e. Cob-A-type, EuT-type, and PduO-type) based on structural similarity within a type; PduO is the most widely distributed and includes human, mammalian, and many bacterial ATRs. All have a common rotary mechanism of action [23]. Diverse ATRs are antigenic when crossing species by infection and therefore create an autoimmune response in the infected person (or animal). Autoimmune attack of ATR would be B-cell mediated, with exogenous antigens being ATR- like enzymes from the class of bacteria producing AdoCbl. Because the exogenous antigens are from any bacteria the class of AdoCbl producing bacteria, a 1:1 correspondence of MS with a single bacterium does not exist. Reduced AdoCbl concentration produces a cascade of events in the pathogenesis of MS including reduced production of cytokines, which require cobalamins for their [anabolic] production. AdoCbl is a cofactor for catabolism of odd-carbon-number fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids, and odd-carbon-number amino acids, via the methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM) reaction that occurs in the mitochondrial matrix [24]. The term ‘‘vitamin B12” confounds identity of the four major cobalamin compounds in humans. The Cobalt +z (i.e., upper) ligand determines the biological activity for cobalamins, and the use of their specific names, cyanocobalamin (CNCbl), hydroxocobalamin (HOCbl), methylcobalamin (MeCbl), and adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) provide specificity to the individual cobalamin compounds. Today, radioimmunoassay (RIA) of cobalamins is the most common method in use [25]. RIA is stated to be specific, however it actually detects the corrin macrocycle and therefore measures combined corrin compounds, i.e., CNCbl, HOCbl, MeCbl, and AdoCbl rather than any one specifically, and cannot measure their individual concentrations, since each is masked by the other corrin
compounds. All studies attempting to correlate B12 concentrations and MS are flawed. Analysis with high performance liquid chroma tography-radioimmunoassay (HPLC-RIA) of the orphan stomach peptide, ghrelin, conducted after separation of proghrelins by HPLC, collection of fractions, and assessment of individual fractions by RIA has been reported [26]. To date, this tandem HPLC-RIA method has not been applied to individually quantify the four major cobalamins in humans. The MS-AdoCbl hypothesis predicts a low concentration of AdoCbl in the mitochondrial matrix (not analytically accessible), in serum and urine from MS patients compared to controls and this prediction can be tested after an analytical method with specificity and sufficient sensitivity is developed (potentially, cadaver mitochondria could be studied for AdoCbl content semiquantitatively). Serum analysis by RIA of B12 has a reference range for males of 200–1100 pg/ml (Quest Diagnostics, Irving, Texas), but as mentioned above, this represents the summation of all corrin compounds present. For example, RIA analysis of serum from a MS patient might show 1,000 pg/ml B12, while HPLC-RIA analysis of the same sample might show [CNCbl = 600 pg/ml + HOCbl = 100 pg/ml + MeCbl = 285 pg/ml + AdoCbl = 15 pg/ml] indicating a probable deficiency in AdoCbl; a normal AdoCbl serum concentration needs to be established. Current RIA protocols for cobalamin compound analyses are incapable of revealing AdoCbl deficiency. There is an acute need, therefore, for development of an accurate and precise HPLC-RIA protocol for the four major cobalamins in serum and urine in attogram/ml up to 1 mg/ml quantities to test for AdoCbl deficiency predicted by the MS-AdoCbl hypothesis. Also, the concentration of AdoCbl bound to transcobalamin2 (TC2) and other cobalamin binding proteins should be studied by HPLC-RIA after a test method is developed. Previous studies have demonstrated that RIA measurements of B12 concentrations do not correlate with MS [27,28]. The MS-AdoCbl hypothesis predicts that only abnormally low AdoCbl concentrations would correlate with MS. ATR concentrations and activity have been established for controls and are consistent with the typical 1 umol (or less) physiological concentrations of AdoCbl; the two known isoforms of ATR are 239 K, with a specific activity of 220 nmol min1 mg1 , and 239 M with a specific activity of 190 nmol min1 mg1 . These values are similar to bacterial ATRs, many of which have been characterized [29]. The typical ATR concentration for MS patients versus controls has not been reported; determination of ATR concentration would be a direct test of MS-AdoCbl hypothesis. Demonstration of antiATR antibodies would be a direct test of MS-AdoCbl hypothesis. Serum and mitochondrial ATR concentrations have not been compared for control individuals living at different latitudes or MS patients in various stages of MS and this should be accomplished semiquantitatively by a proposed extraction of mitochondria from cadavers, lyse mitochondria, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, stain, and use protein assay reagent. It is not possible to produce a massive dose of AdoCbl using a high concentration of cyanocobalamin or hydroxocobalamin since the ATR concentration is not sufficient even in control individuals. A study by Kira et al. [30] of therapy of 24 MS patients featuring massive doses (60 mg daily for 6 months) reported minor improvements in visual and auditory evoked potentials [30]. The finding was not corroborated; possibly the large concentration of MeCbl used served as a substrate for the low concentration of ATR and which produced, in turn, a small amount of AdoCbl. It was this AdoCbl that was responsible for whatever minor beneficial effects were observed. AdoCbl is water soluble and does not cause vitaminosis. The simplest heuristic is the trial-and-error method. Kira et al. used MeCbl as a therapeutic agent for treatment of MS and failed to produce significant results. The use of 60 mg daily MeCbl supports the idea that 10 mg daily AdoCbl would not pose a health risk. Pathogenesis of MS There six stages in the pathogenesis of MS. Stage I is the autoimmune attack by B cells of ATR after immune response to bacterial ATRs (found in bacteria that synthesize cobalamins) reducing its concentration and potentially eliminating it from many mitochondria throughout the body. Stage II is the resulting deficiency of AdoCbl causing failure of MCM catabolism of odd-carbon-number substrates throughout the body that may be referred to as subclinical AdoCbl deficiency. Sage III is the production of odd-carbonnumber fatty acids and other components that are incorporated into myelin rendering it antigenic and this stage might take years or even decades. Stage IV is a breach of BBB introducing immune system B and T cells into the brain that continue attack of ATR by B cells and initiate attack of antigenic myelin by T cells as well as any ATR enzymes or structures containing sequences similar to ATR. Stage V is attack of mitochondria, especially complex I, and any structural components having the epitope found in ATR. Stage VI is reduction of ATP production resulting from increased permeability of mitochondrial membranes thereby decoupling ATP production driven by the proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane; many MS symptoms derive from ATP deficiency. The multiple stages are occurring somewhat simultaneously though manifesting different clinical signs. The clinical sign of demyelination results from R cell attack of myelin; the fatigue, muscle weakness, heat stress, and neuromuscular deficit result from attack of mitochondria reducing bioavailable ATP to cells. Symptoms such as fatigue, muscle weakness, or heat stress result from deficient ATP. Immune attack of PNS myelin is likely to be significant though really poorly understood. Damage to mitochondria and the PNS are extensive in MS. The immune response foundational to MS-AdoCbl hypothesis also damages mitochondria The amino acid sequence found in ATR also occurs in mitochondria and thus mitochondria are under immune attack limiting production of ATP. This is likely to be B cell mediated. Reduction of ATP availability attenuates the nerve pulse. Longer nerve tracts have more mitochondria in total than shorter nerve tracts and are affected first manifesting gait disturbance in the legs, then arms become weaker, and ultimately cranial nerves are affected resulting in Charcot’s triad (the near terminal stage: nystagmus, tremor, and scanning speech) described by Charcot in 1865. This attenuation effect is proportional to the length of the nerve tract and the total number of mitochondria involved. It is likely that greatly reduced ATP production causes plaque lesions characteristic of SCD or MS; no references were identified demonstrating reduced ATP concentration causing lesions and this should be investigated with spinal cord nerve cell cultures [31]. ATR requires ATP to produce AdoCbl, thus reduced ATP availability will also inhibit AdoCbl production. Optic neuritis as a presenting symptom of MS correlates with plaque lesions observable with MRI and this is often an early stage of RRMS. There are three pathogenic processes in MS, those being attack of ATR, demyelination, and mitochondrial damage reducing ATP production. The antigenic myelin (either conformational or having odd-carbon-number constituents) is produced from defective components created as a result subclinical cobalamin deficiency. RRMS has a stage change to SPMS when most antigenic myelin has been eliminated. Progressive forms have damage to mitochondria as the major pathogenic process. Patent790 claims the amino acid sequence RAVCRRAER forming the binding site for the corrin macrocycle prior to the production of AdoCbl (Patent790 claims other sequences as well). This sequence or a variant is likely
present in transport proteins or on mitochondrial membranes. There is need identify anti-ATR antibodies and to prepare fluorescent antibodies from them to label channels on mitochondria or other membrane structural features of mitochondrial membranes; it is beyond the scope of this article as it goes beyond proposing and testing the MS-AdoCbl hypothesis. In the specification of Patent790 an immunomodulator is described with ATR peptide sequences that are claimed, but financial limitations prevented its synthesis. It is vitally important to identify the presence of anti-ATR antibodies that are predicted by MS-AdoCbl theory. Studies show that when ATP production is significantly reduced from mitochondria within nerve cells axonal death results, though the details of how axonal death occurs in PPMS or SPMS are not known [32]. This would indicate that ATP is neuroprotective. Mao and Reddy [33] provide extensive discussion of MS as a neurodegenerative disease due to mitochondrial dysfunction and emphasize importance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) [33]. In essence, this article advocates that progressive forms of MS are fundamentally a mitochondrial disease with the autoimmune target being mitochondrial complexes located inside the mitochondrial matrix. Mitochondrial damage results in decreased ATP production and many symptoms of MS result from deficiency of ATP in addition to demyelination. Much evidence is coming forth that mitochondrial dysfunction occurs in MS patients, mtDNA mutation, mitochondrial structural changes, and abnormal mitochondrial enzyme activities have been observed; impaired mitochondrial energy metabolism is important in the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and MS hence therapy targeting mitochondrial dysfunction has great potential [33]. Adenosine A2A receptors are increased in SPMS [34]. Studies confirm that mitochondria play a significant role in MS pathogenesis. Membranes with the respiratory chain composed of 5 enzyme complexes is located inside the inner membrane is controlled by both nuclear DNA and mtDNA; Rezaee et al. proposed that genetic factors in nuclear DNA and mtDNA contributed to Complex I anomalies in MS [35]. Kumleh et al. reported complex I activity was greatly decreased in MS patients although genetic mutations were not discovered [36]. It is proposed here that mitochondria and complex I are relentlessly under autoimmune attack (not primarily a genetic mutation) progressively at a slow pace since complex I is inside the inner mitochondrial membrane. Human complex I is responsible for electron transport and creating the proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane creating the driving force for ATP production (other complexes are also involved). Human complex I consists of 14 subunits homologous to bacterial subunits [37]. Antibodies to complex 1 are proposed as potentially fundamental to progressive forms of MS possibly even initiating the attack of myelin in RRMS; there is need to investigate occurrence of these antibodies in MS patients. ATP binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) are ubiquitous in living organisms, have highly conserved ATPase core structures in two highly conserved motifs: Walker A and Walker B; there are species specific regions as well as conserved regions and ABC transporters have been considered as targets for development of therapeutic agents [38]. There is need for investigation of antiABC transporter antibodies present in progressive MS patients, especially those originating in response to infection by Rhizobia bacteria. The reduction in AdoCbl is caused by autoimmune attack of ATR with the same peptide sequences likely present in the mitochondrion. Mayo reviews papers on the question if MS is a mitochondrial disease [33]. Mitochondria in nerve cells produce ATP utilized within the cell; the Enliten ATP Assay System (Promega) measures 1011 to 1016 moles of ATP and many solvent systems have been described with trichloroacetic acid being the best extractant for tissues. Studies are needed to compare ATP concentrations of MS patients (as a marker), nerve cell cultures, (or animal models) to controls and whether or not large dose AdoCbl therapy increases ATP production. In vitro studies of MS using cell culture where prepared nerve tracts could be utilized for MS studies with assay of ATP. Animal model studies in MS research While widely used and routinely cited as an animal model for MS, EAE is a poor approximation of the disease [39]. SCD resulting from cobalamin deficiency (actually AdoCbl deficiency) produces a realistic animal model; the totally gastrectomized (GTX) rat reproduces key morphological features of SCD and this is deemed as a good model of MS [40]. However, the GTX rat model is extreme by eliminating both AdoCbl and MeCbl completely and not separating those two variables. To extend this model to the proposed bacterial infection, a test animal would be inoculated with human ATR and bacterial PduO enzymes (or killed bacteria e.g. Rhizobia) triggering immune response to both the human and the test animal’s own ATR. The folate pathway for production of MeCbl would be active. Inclusion of folic acid in the diet will shunt cobalamins along the pathway to MeCbl. In this animal model the immune response to ATR would be B-cell mediated. Development of MS has an extended period of subclinical AdoCbl deficiency that produces antigenic myelin; Carmel indicates subclinical cobalamin deficiency is more common than generally recognized though the health impact is unclear [41]. Attack of antigenic myelin is likely T-cell mediated (based on EAE studies) [42]. An extended period of ATR and AdoCbl depletion prevents repair of myelin and introduces antigenicity in myelin. With an animal model it should be possible to accelerate induction of myelin antigenicity by providing a diet rich in odd-carbon-number fatty acids with minimal AdoCbl present (simulating subclinical cobalamin deficiency). The initial autoimmune target is ATR and the secondary immune system target is antigenic myelin. Potentially, AdoCbl is necessary for maintenance of BBB integrity. BBB breach allows white blood cells (WBCs) and other blood constituents (e.g. fibrinogen) to enter the brain crossing the BBB, activating the coagulation cascade, and recruiting T-cells and macrophages to cause CNS autoimmunity in the EAE animal model and potentially MS [43]. The proposed MS-AdoCbl animal model creates a more realistic MS model by depleting ATR and AdoCbl and then would introduce isolated WBCs into the brain’s blood system. Complete blood count (CBC) methods use filtration to separate individual types of leukocytes. Clonal expansion of human leukocytes is accomplished by cell culture with interleukins, with B Cell Receptor (BCR), with T Cell Receptor (TCR) and potentially other means that are not referenced here; the concept presented herein is to obtain leukocytes from buffy coats (WBCs) obtained by centrifugation followed by stimulation for clonal expansion of leukocytes; appropriate interleukins, BCR, or TCR may not be available for the test animal. Cross species experiments are advocated here i.e. attempting to utilize human interleukins for clonal expansion of leukocytes from test animals such as rat, mouse, or guinea pig. No references are provided since no such experiments were identified in the literature. If clonal expansion of leukocytes from a test animal were accomplished then filtration methods common to CBC could achieve separation of cell types. The final step in creating a realistic animal model of MS would be injecting individual cell types into the brains of test animals simulating BBB breach and observing the response. Progression of CNS demyelination in the test animal should be followed by MRI [44]. Traumatic brain injury has been studied in rats by MRI [45]. Creating a lab chow with only some MeCbl to prevent megaloblastic anemia and a large concentration of folic acid would ensure minimal AdoCbl is formed. Odd-carbonnumber fatty acids (FA) could be included in the lab chow diet.
(Continued in comments)
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2023.02.17 18:20 hugequiz_com Untappd Highest-Rated Beers By State - All States

Instead of doing a final part to this post I decided to just post the entirety of the data at once for the whole US - here's the highest-rated 10K+ check-in beers by each state...
State Rank Beer Brewery Check-Ins ABV Rating
AK 1 Endless Ending Anchorage Brewing Company 10072 15.50 4.56
AK 2 Berserker Imperial Stout Midnight Sun Brewing Co. 14947 12.70 4.16
AK 3 Bitter Monk Anchorage Brewing Company 13821 9.00 4.01
AK 4 Love Buzz Anchorage Brewing Company 13144 8.00 3.96
AK 5 The Tide and Its Takers Anchorage Brewing Company 13120 9.00 3.94
AK 6 Mosaic Saison Anchorage Brewing Company 13130 6.50 3.89
AK 7 Anadromous Anchorage Brewing Company 12653 8.50 3.86
AK 8 Solstice IPA 49th State Brewing Company 10154 6.80 3.84
AK 9 T.R.E.A.T. Midnight Sun Brewing Co. 10793 7.80 3.82
AK 10 Hopothermia Alaskan Brewing Co. 72269 8.50 3.81
AL 1 Snake Handler Double IPA Good People Brewing Company 37566 10.00 4.03
AL 2 Paradise Now (Raspberry Berliner Weisse) TrimTab Brewing Co. 21259 5.00 3.80
AL 3 Blood Orange Berliner-Weisse Goat Island Brewing 11074 5.00 3.79
AL 4 Coffee Oatmeal Stout Good People Brewing Company 22283 5.70 3.78
AL 5 Judge Roy Bean Fairhope Brewing Co. 10503 5.10 3.78
AL 6 (Take The) Causeway IPA Fairhope Brewing Co. 18883 8.20 3.76
AL 7 IPA Good People Brewing Company 64403 7.10 3.70
AL 8 Monkeynaut Straight to Ale 49043 7.25 3.70
AL 9 Lily Flagg Milk Stout Straight to Ale 15536 5.00 3.69
AL 10 TrimTab IPA TrimTab Brewing Co. 21684 6.30 3.69
AR 1 Rockhound - IPA Lost Forty Brewing 12572 6.20 3.69
AR 2 Love Honey Bock Lost Forty Brewing 18113 6.30 3.68
AR 3 IPA Ozark Beer Company 10508 5.30 3.62
AR 4 American Pale Ale Ozark Beer Company 10604 4.20 3.61
AZ 1 Blueberry Spaceship Box Superstition Meadery 16181 5.50 4.22
AZ 2 Peanut Butter Jelly Crime Superstition Meadery 16444 13.00 4.16
AZ 3 White Russian SunUp Brewing Co. 11678 9.20 4.14
AZ 4 Spellbinder Wren House Brewing Company 18969 7.00 4.08
AZ 5 Koffee Kölsch Huss Brewing Company 19889 4.70 4.04
AZ 6 Hop Chowda Goldwater Brewing Co. 13427 6.40 3.99
AZ 7 Double Knot Four Peaks Brewing Company 11263 9.00 3.91
AZ 8 WHT CHCLT ALE (White Chocolate Ale) Sonoran Brewing Company 22380 4.70 3.90
AZ 9 Refuge Arizona Wilderness Brewing Co. 19505 6.80 3.90
AZ 10 Tower Station IPA Mother Road Brewing Company 56232 7.30 3.89
CA 1 Pliny the Younger Russian River Brewing Company 54086 10.25 4.65
CA 2 Speedway Stout (Vietnamese Coffee Barrel Aged) AleSmith Brewing Company 10599 14.20 4.55
CA 3 Duck Duck Gooze The Lost Abbey 10773 7.00 4.54
CA 4 Chocolate Rain The Bruery 17797 19.50 4.50
CA 5 Pliny the Elder Russian River Brewing Company 792529 8.00 4.50
CA 6 West Ashley Sante Adairius Rustic Ales 14167 7.30 4.50
CA 7 Black Tuesday The Bruery 29091 19.40 4.48
CA 8 Firestone 18 (XVIII) Anniversary Ale Firestone Walker Brewing Company 26323 13.00 4.47
CA 9 Firestone 19 (XIX) Anniversary Ale Firestone Walker Brewing Company 22248 13.80 4.46
CA 10 Speedway Stout (Barrel Aged) AleSmith Brewing Company 17063 13.30 4.46
CO 1 Tweak (Bourbon Barrel Aged) Avery Brewing Co. 55944 17.50 4.39
CO 2 Barrel-Aged Ten FIDY Oskar Blues Brewery 118532 12.50 4.37
CO 3 Extra Extra Juicy Bits WeldWerks Brewing Co. 21522 8.60 4.36
CO 4 Uncle Jacob's Stout Avery Brewing Co. 41869 16.90 4.36
CO 5 Plank'd (2018) Avery Brewing Co. 14129 16.20 4.32
CO 6 DDH Juicy Bits WeldWerks Brewing Co. 23150 6.70 4.29
CO 7 Bamburana Oskar Blues Brewery 20227 12.20 4.27
CO 8 Nightmare On Brett (Aged in Leopold Bros Whiskey Barrels) Crooked Stave Artisan Beer Project 41454 9.67 4.24
CO 9 Insula Multos Collibus Avery Brewing Co. 11389 9.70 4.20
CO 10 Death By Coconut (Rum Barrel Aged) Oskar Blues Brewery 11047 11.50 4.19
CT 1 Double Fuzzy Baby Ducks New England Brewing Co. 22834 8.20 4.32
CT 2 G-Bot New England Brewing Co. 109063 8.80 4.30
CT 3 Fuzzy Baby Ducks New England Brewing Co. 52576 6.20 4.26
CT 4 Double Scoop Back East Brewing Company 13058 8.40 4.25
CT 5 Crucial Mass Counter Weight Brewing Co. 11773 8.00 4.22
CT 6 Locust Reign New England Brewing Co. 14216 8.20 4.22
CT 7 Cloudscape New Park Brewing 12268 6.50 4.19
CT 8 Burst Fox Farm Brewery 19310 7.00 4.19
CT 9 Allora Fox Farm Brewery 10454 6.40 4.18
CT 10 Wandering Into the Fog (Galaxy) Abomination Brewing Company 18386 8.60 4.18
DC 1 On The Wings of Armageddon DC Brau Brewing Company 63042 9.20 4.08
DC 2 Mexican Radio Bluejacket 14065 8.00 3.94
DC 3 Lost Weekend Bluejacket 17740 7.00 3.88
DC 4 Joint Resolution DC Brau Brewing Company 17460 5.50 3.70
DC 5 Dance of Days Atlas Brew Works 12703 5.70 3.66
DC 6 Raised By Wolves Right Proper Brewing Company 28128 5.00 3.66
DC 7 Penn Quarter Porter DC Brau Brewing Company 28705 5.50 3.66
DC 8 Ponzi Atlas Brew Works 23394 7.30 3.62
DC 9 The Corruption DC Brau Brewing Company 94900 6.50 3.58
DC 10 Rowdy Atlas Brew Works 23020 6.20 3.57
DE 1 World Wide Stout Dogfish Head Craft Brewery 89030 18.00 4.23
DE 2 120 Minute IPA Dogfish Head Craft Brewery 275732 18.00 4.23
DE 3 Secret Machine - Blueberry, Blackberry, Raspberry Dewey Beer Company 15970 7.00 4.17
DE 4 Burton Baton Dogfish Head Craft Brewery 163682 10.00 4.06
DE 5 90 Minute Imperial IPA Dogfish Head Craft Brewery 785790 9.00 4.05
DE 6 Miles Davis' Bitches Brew Dogfish Head Craft Brewery 78289 9.00 4.04
DE 7 Raison D'Extra Dogfish Head Craft Brewery 43121 16.50 4.04
DE 8 Swishy Pants Dewey Beer Company 19067 7.40 4.03
DE 9 Squall IPA Dogfish Head Craft Brewery 15958 9.00 3.98
DE 10 Olde School Dogfish Head Craft Brewery 48011 15.00 3.98
FL 1 Double Barrel Hunahpu's® Cigar City Brewing® 11497 11.50 4.70
FL 2 Morning Wood Funky Buddha Brewery 29975 11.20 4.51
FL 3 Imperial German Chocolate Cupcake Stout Angry Chair Brewing 11577 10.60 4.50
FL 4 Last Buffalo in the Park Funky Buddha Brewery 29135 11.50 4.46
FL 5 Hunahpu’s® Cigar City Brewing® 45812 12.50 4.44
FL 6 DFPF J. Wakefield Brewing 13598 6.00 4.42
FL 7 Wide Awake It's Morning Funky Buddha Brewery 26554 9.50 4.41
FL 8 Last Snow Funky Buddha Brewery 86659 6.40 4.30
FL 9 Maple Bacon Coffee Porter Funky Buddha Brewery 59468 6.40 4.30
FL 10 The Love Below Funky Buddha Brewery 10738 12.00 4.27
GA 1 Duende Creature Comforts Brewing Company 12216 8.00 4.24
GA 2 Cinnamon Roll’d Wake-n-Bake Terrapin Beer Co. 14946 9.40 4.16
GA 3 Tiramisu-Hoo Terrapin Beer Co. 13623 8.50 4.16
GA 4 Cosmik Debris Creature Comforts Brewing Company 27144 8.00 4.16
GA 5 French Toasted W-n-B Coffee Oatmeal Imperial Stout Terrapin Beer Co. 11944 9.40 4.15
GA 6 Athena Paradiso (Passion Fruit & Guava) Creature Comforts Brewing Company 10651 4.50 4.12
GA 7 Athena Paradiso (Tart Cherry, Raspberry, & Cranberry) Creature Comforts Brewing Company 13577 4.50 4.11
GA 8 Koko Buni Creature Comforts Brewing Company 21783 6.80 4.10
GA 9 Space Lettuce Monday Night Brewing 17969 8.10 4.06
GA 10 Tropicália Creature Comforts Brewing Company 173136 6.60 4.06
HI 1 Imperial Coconut Porter Maui Brewing Company 27455 9.00 4.13
HI 2 Mosaic Mo' Betta Maui Brewing Company 13358 8.00 3.90
HI 3 Double Overhead Maui Brewing Company 27936 8.50 3.87
HI 4 White Mountain Porter Big Island Brewhaus 10863 5.80 3.80
HI 5 Overboard Big Island Brewhaus 17530 6.90 3.80
HI 6 Hop Island Honolulu Beerworks 12892 7.20 3.75
HI 7 Coconut Hiwa Maui Brewing Company 161706 6.00 3.75
HI 8 Golden Sabbath Big Island Brewhaus 12254 8.50 3.72
HI 9 Lorenzini IPA Maui Brewing Company 17750 8.00 3.71
HI 10 Mai Time Island Wheat Kona Brewing Company 10507 4.90 3.71
IA 1 Mornin' Delight Toppling Goliath Brewing Co. 24037 12.00 4.62
IA 2 Double Dry Hop King Sue Toppling Goliath Brewing Co. 38664 7.80 4.41
IA 3 Double Dry Hop Pseudo Sue Toppling Goliath Brewing Co. 74633 5.80 4.33
IA 4 King Sue Toppling Goliath Brewing Co. 281885 7.80 4.32
IA 5 King Sue Toppling Goliath Brewing Co. 282146 7.80 4.32
IA 6 Mosaic Dry Hop Pseudo Sue Toppling Goliath Brewing Co. 30063 5.80 4.28
IA 7 Sosus Toppling Goliath Brewing Co. 74805 7.80 4.26
IA 8 Supa' Sumo Toppling Goliath Brewing Co. 45315 7.80 4.26
IA 9 Galaxy Dry Hop Pseudo Sue Toppling Goliath Brewing Co. 37882 5.80 4.23
IA 10 Dragon Fandango Toppling Goliath Brewing Co. 38063 4.20 4.21
ID 1 The DogFather Laughing Dog Brewing 22907 9.30 3.85
ID 2 Lost Continent Grand Teton Brewing 12611 8.00 3.80
ID 3 Anubis Imperial Coffee Porter Laughing Dog Brewing 10167 9.20 3.76
ID 4 Dagger Falls IPA Sockeye Brewing 18981 6.50 3.66
ID 5 Shock Collar Laughing Dog Brewing 27219 10.00 3.65
ID 6 Sweetgrass APA Grand Teton Brewing 32410 6.00 3.57
ID 7 Rustler IPA Payette Brewing Company 14185 6.20 3.54
ID 8 AlphaDog Imperial IPA Laughing Dog Brewing 15044 8.50 3.52
ID 9 Amber Ale Grand Teton Brewing 12128 4.80 3.52
ID 10 Ale 208 Grand Teton Brewing 10378 4.70 3.51
IL 1 Rare Bourbon County Brand Stout (2015) Goose Island Beer Co. 44386 14.80 4.72
IL 2 Double Blazed Orange Milkshake Hop Butcher For The World 14289 9.50 4.44
IL 3 Bourbon County Brand Stout (2022) 14.3% Goose Island Beer Co. 22146 14.30 4.41
IL 4 Double Grid Hop Butcher For The World 19274 7.50 4.38
IL 5 Bourbon County Brand Stout Goose Island Beer Co. 360334 15.20 4.38
IL 6 Green Moss Hop Butcher For The World 17178 7.50 4.36
IL 7 Bourbon County Brand Sir Isaac's Stout (2022) Goose Island Beer Co. 11617 13.90 4.35
IL 8 Bourbon County Brand Northwoods Stout (2017) Goose Island Beer Co. 37571 13.20 4.34
IL 9 Bourbon County Brand Coffee Stout (2022) Goose Island Beer Co. 15348 13.20 4.33
IL 10 Blazed Orange Milkshake Hop Butcher For The World 20021 7.50 4.33
IN 1 Dark Lord 3 Floyds Brewing 20674 15.00 4.33
IN 2 Permanent Funeral 3 Floyds Brewing 87764 10.50 4.27
IN 3 Zombie Dust 3 Floyds Brewing 830686 6.50 4.25
IN 4 Tsarina Valentina 18th Street Brewery 11087 12.00 4.22
IN 5 Dreadnaught 3 Floyds Brewing 95414 9.40 4.19
IN 6 Wigsplitter 3 Floyds Brewing 39215 7.70 4.15
IN 7 Chevalier Bertrand du Guesclin 3 Floyds Brewing 17624 8.90 4.13
IN 8 Arctic Panzer Wolf 3 Floyds Brewing 77249 9.00 4.13
IN 9 Peach Upland Brewing Company 10028 5.50 4.09
IN 10 Apocalypse Cow 3 Floyds Brewing 50174 8.60 4.08
KS 1 Yakimaniac IPA Free State Brewing Co. 25816 7.50 3.80
KS 2 16-Bit Double Pale Ale (2015) Tallgrass Brewing Company 17041 6.20 3.71
KS 3 Octoberfest Free State Brewing Co. 18088 5.40 3.70
KS 4 Warbeard Walnut River Brewing Company 11999 5.50 3.70
KS 5 Stormchaser IPA Free State Brewing Co. 17629 5.70 3.61
KS 6 Oatmeal Stout Free State Brewing Co. 19833 6.10 3.57
KS 7 Ad Astra Ale Free State Brewing Co. 26742 5.60 3.53
KS 8 Copperhead Pale Ale Free State Brewing Co. 24065 6.00 3.48
KY 1 70K Against the Grain Brewery 23135 13.10 4.24
KY 2 Bo & Luke Against the Grain Brewery 27454 13.00 4.13
KY 3 London Balling Against the Grain Brewery 14718 12.50 4.03
KY 4 Tropic Flare Braxton Brewing Company 22183 6.80 3.95
KY 5 Kentucky Bourbon Barrel Peppermint Porter Lexington Brewing & Distilling Co. 21103 8.20 3.93
KY 6 Citra Ass Down Against the Grain Brewery 127862 8.20 3.90
KY 7 Rico Sauvin Against the Grain Brewery 41564 9.00 3.87
KY 8 35K Against the Grain Brewery 57196 7.00 3.86
KY 9 Kentucky Vanilla Barrel Cream Ale Lexington Brewing & Distilling Co. 95298 5.50 3.85
KY 10 Kentucky Bourbon Barrel Ale Lexington Brewing & Distilling Co. 353201 8.20 3.85
LA 1 DDH Ghost In the Machine Parish Brewing Co. 34714 8.50 4.56
LA 2 Ghost In The Machine Parish Brewing Co. 160532 8.50 4.24
LA 3 Rêve Coffee Stout Parish Brewing Co. 28630 6.80 4.22
LA 4 Attacus Atlas Parish Brewing Co. 24676 9.00 4.20
LA 5 Braincake Parish Brewing Co. 11863 8.40 4.19
LA 6 Grace and Grit™ Great Raft Brewing 23626 8.00 4.11
LA 7 Nova Vert Parish Brewing Co. 12505 6.80 4.11
LA 8 Bloom Parish Brewing Co. 18744 6.70 4.08
LA 9 Root Beer Abita Brewing Company 11805 0.00 4.07
LA 10 SIPS: Pinot Noir Grape And Black Currant Parish Brewing Co. 10355 4.80 4.07
MA 1 King JJJuliusss Tree House Brewing Company 53244 8.40 4.71
MA 2 King Julius Tree House Brewing Company 106873 8.20 4.63
MA 3 Very HHHazyyy Tree House Brewing Company 21366 8.80 4.63
MA 4 Very GGGreennn Tree House Brewing Company 36682 8.30 4.62
MA 5 Very Hazy Tree House Brewing Company 83062 8.60 4.61
MA 6 Emperor Julius Tree House Brewing Company 26499 8.80 4.59
MA 7 Juice Machine Tree House Brewing Company 90478 8.20 4.58
MA 8 Headroom Trillium Brewing Company 16468 8.00 4.58
MA 9 Very Green Tree House Brewing Company 143042 8.30 4.58
MA 10 JJJuiceee Machine Tree House Brewing Company 16881 8.60 4.57
MD 1 Citralaxy Burley Oak Brewing Company 15025 7.50 4.15
MD 2 Stout Aged in Bulleit Bourbon Barrels Guinness Open Gate Brewery 11014 9.50 4.06
MD 3 Barrel-Aged Stock Ale Guinness Open Gate Brewery 12277 10.00 4.03
MD 4 Blackbeard's Breakfast Heavy Seas Beer 31171 10.00 4.02
MD 5 Siren Noire Heavy Seas Beer 30710 9.50 4.01
MD 6 Pulp RAR Brewing 18928 6.20 4.00
MD 7 Double Duckpin Union Craft Brewing 41976 8.50 3.99
MD 8 Cush Cushwa Brewing Company 11323 6.50 3.97
MD 9 Citra Splendor Manor Hill Brewing 17563 8.30 3.97
MD 10 Brewtus Monocacy Brewing Company 11126 8.70 3.92
ME 1 Dinner Maine Beer Company 116121 8.20 4.52
ME 2 Swish Bissell Brothers Brewing Company 108868 8.00 4.51
ME 3 Here's To Feeling Good All the Time Bissell Brothers Brewing Company 27934 7.80 4.39
ME 4 Nothing Gold Bissell Brothers Brewing Company 56451 8.20 4.34
ME 5 Second Dinner Maine Beer Company 14912 8.00 4.31
ME 6 Farm To Face Allagash Brewing Company 14745 5.60 4.27
ME 7 Preserve & Protect Bissell Brothers Brewing Company 16008 7.80 4.25
ME 8 Flume² Battery Steele Brewing 10202 8.00 4.24
ME 9 Coolship Red Allagash Brewing Company 16157 6.60 4.24
ME 10 Reciprocal Bissell Brothers Brewing Company 63957 7.30 4.24
MI 1 Black Agnes Schramm's Mead 10517 14.00 4.66
MI 2 Black Note Stout Bell's Brewery 47694 11.20 4.44
MI 3 The Statement Schramm's Mead 15210 14.00 4.44
MI 4 PIÑA COLADA Smooj 14287 5.00 4.43
MI 5 Bourbon Barrel Aged Expedition Stout Bell's Brewery 23436 13.40 4.42
MI 6 Bourbon Barrel Aged Plead the 5th Dark Horse Brewing Co. 29885 11.00 4.39
MI 7 Kentucky Breakfast Stout (KBS) Founders Brewing Co. 355189 12.00 4.39
MI 8 KBS Maple Mackinac Fudge Founders Brewing Co. 60561 11.00 4.37
MI 9 Rye Hipster Brunch Stout Odd Side Ales 38659 12.70 4.35
MI 10 STRAWBERRY BANANA Smooj 13336 5.10 4.32
MN 1 Darkness (2017) Barrel-Aged Surly Brewing Company 12566 12.00 4.37
MN 2 Abrasive Double IPA Surly Brewing Company 122329 9.20 4.20
MN 3 Rain Drops Barrel Theory Beer Company 13950 7.50 4.19
MN 4 Peanut Butter Porter Dangerous Man Brewing Co. 23609 5.30 4.17
MN 5 Spirit Føul Fair State Brewing Cooperative 22940 6.30 4.15
MN 6 Rum King Imperial Stout Indeed Brewing Company 14943 10.50 4.15
MN 7 Axe Man Surly Brewing Company 218765 7.20 4.13
MN 8 Blissful Ignorance Lupulin Brewing Company 27214 9.00 4.11
MN 9 Barrel-Aged Pentagram Surly Brewing Company 11724 6.70 4.09
MN 10 Blakkr (Surly Release) Surly Brewing Company 33323 9.99 4.09
MO 1 Barrel-Aged Abraxas Perennial Artisan Ales 11817 11.20 4.71
MO 2 Abraxas Perennial Artisan Ales 90425 11.50 4.41
MO 3 King Fallen Flag Narrow Gauge Brewing Company 11309 8.60 4.36
MO 4 DDH OJ Run Narrow Gauge Brewing Company 14018 8.60 4.32
MO 5 Sump Coffee Stout Perennial Artisan Ales 52213 10.50 4.29
MO 6 Double Dry Hopped Fallen Flag Narrow Gauge Brewing Company 23874 7.00 4.26
MO 7 OJ Run Narrow Gauge Brewing Company 14276 8.60 4.23
MO 8 Double Dry Hopped (DDH) Cloud City Narrow Gauge Brewing Company 15537 7.00 4.21
MO 9 Fallen Flag Narrow Gauge Brewing Company 12372 7.00 4.16
MO 10 MILF Mother's Brewing Company 14430 11.00 4.11
MS 1 Crowd Control Southern Prohibition Brewing 28982 8.00 3.94
MS 2 Timber Beast Lazy Magnolia Brewing Company 25600 9.00 3.77
MS 3 Devil's Harvest Southern Prohibition Brewing 35038 4.90 3.72
MS 4 Li'l Smack IPA Chandeleur Island Brewing Company 13816 6.50 3.67
MS 5 Mississippi Fire Ant Imperial Red Southern Prohibition Brewing 14402 8.00 3.66
MS 6 Southern Hops'pitality IPA Lazy Magnolia Brewing Company 35498 5.50 3.59
MS 7 Southern Pecan Lazy Magnolia Brewing Company 149829 4.50 3.58
MS 8 Suzy B Southern Prohibition Brewing 19122 5.00 3.55
MS 9 Jefferson Stout Lazy Magnolia Brewing Company 33403 4.50 3.43
MT 1 Grazing Clouds Mountains Walking Brewery 10211 7.00 4.02
MT 2 Cold Smoke® KettleHouse Brewing Company 37389 6.50 3.95
MT 3 Ivan The Terrible Big Sky Brewing Company 28814 9.50 3.89
MT 4 Mountain Man Jeremiah Johnson Brewing Co. 11549 6.50 3.84
MT 5 Hat Trick Hop Tamarack Brewing Company 10076 7.00 3.77
MT 6 Hopzone IPA Bozeman Brewing Company 10978 7.00 3.72
MT 7 Bent Nail Red Lodge Ales 16977 6.30 3.67
MT 8 Going To The Sun Great Northern Brewing Company (Montana) 13154 5.70 3.67
MT 9 Shake-A-Day Big Sky Brewing Company 14711 8.20 3.65
MT 10 Wild Huckleberry Craft Lager Great Northern Brewing Company (Montana) 11628 4.50 3.64
NC 1 Angel of Darkness Wicked Weed Brewing 10170 11.00 4.35
NC 2 Red Angel Wicked Weed Brewing 13494 7.00 4.32
NC 3 Bourbon Barrel Aged Sexual Chocolate Foothills Brewing 14053 9.60 4.31
NC 4 Griddle Imperial Espresso Stout Burial Beer Co. 14531 10.00 4.26
NC 5 Neon God New Anthem Beer Project 10839 6.90 4.23
NC 6 Until There Is No Longer Burial Beer Co. 10246 7.50 4.22
NC 7 Citraquench'l Heist Brewery 31791 7.10 4.20
NC 8 Dark Age Wicked Weed Brewing 31596 12.00 4.19
NC 9 White Angel Wicked Weed Brewing 10520 7.40 4.19
NC 10 Barrel Aged French Toast Imperial Stout Wicked Weed Brewing 17059 11.40 4.18
ND 1 King of the Thing Drekker Brewing Company 14603 8.30 4.23
ND 2 Doomsday Device Drekker Brewing Company 11255 8.30 4.22
ND 3 Freak Parade Drekker Brewing Company 16469 8.20 4.11
ND 4 Ectogasm Drekker Brewing Company 37735 7.00 4.09
ND 5 Involuntary Narcissistic Rage Drekker Brewing Company 11587 8.50 4.05
ND 6 Wood Chipper Fargo Brewing Company 15801 6.50 3.63
ND 7 Stone's Throw Fargo Brewing Company 19289 4.50 3.57
NE 1 Fairy Nectar - Double Dry Hopped Kros Strain Brewing 10993 6.20 4.19
NE 2 Black Betty Imperial Stout Nebraska Brewing Company 19969 10.60 4.06
NE 3 Fairy Nectar IPA Kros Strain Brewing 28723 6.20 3.96
NE 4 Mélange a Trois Nebraska Brewing Company 16089 11.30 3.93
NE 5 Snow Beast Winter Ale Kinkaider Brewing Company 11336 6.80 3.92
NE 6 Long Route Peanut Butter Porter Empyrean Brewing Co. 29640 5.00 3.84
NE 7 Vanilla Bean Blonde Ale Infusion Brewing Company 22842 4.80 3.81
NE 8 Certified Evil Lucky Bucket Brewing Company 15098 9.10 3.80
NE 9 Green Label IPA Zipline Brewing Co. 14784 6.50 3.79
NE 10 Oatmeal Porter Zipline Brewing Co. 16042 6.00 3.73
NH 1 Combover Schilling Beer Co. 12833 7.00 3.98
NH 2 Squeeze Great Rhythm Brewing Company 14758 5.70 3.93
NH 3 Full Clip Stoneface Brewing Company 24090 6.50 3.92
NH 4 IPA Stoneface Brewing Company 55646 7.20 3.91
NH 5 Safe Space NEIPA Concord Craft Brewing Company 12491 6.00 3.91
NH 6 Baltic Porter Smuttynose Brewing Co. 21560 9.00 3.90
NH 7 Really Old Brown Dog Ale Smuttynose Brewing Co. 18005 11.10 3.85
NH 8 RVP (Robust Vanilla Porter) Great North Aleworks 12895 6.50 3.84
NH 9 American Porter Stoneface Brewing Company 10536 5.50 3.84
NH 10 Tropical Haze Great Rhythm Brewing Company 12547 6.80 3.82
NJ 1 Sunday Brunch Kane Brewing Company 17718 9.20 4.42
NJ 2 Mexican Brunch Kane Brewing Company 11537 9.20 4.42
NJ 3 Café Y' Churro Carton Brewing Company 14067 12.00 4.34
NJ 4 Morning Bell Kane Brewing Company 21417 9.20 4.27
NJ 5 SBX Kane Brewing Company 10595 8.40 4.25
NJ 6 Regular Coffee Carton Brewing Company 32129 12.00 4.23
NJ 7 Heady Jams Brix City Brewing 10124 8.00 4.18
NJ 8 Power Juicer Icarus Brewing 10199 7.50 4.14
NJ 9 Drinking Crayons Icarus Brewing 12331 7.90 4.14
NJ 10 Party Wave Kane Brewing Company 24343 7.40 4.12
NM 1 Project Dank La Cumbre Brewing Company 24952 7.50 4.10
NM 2 Elevated IPA La Cumbre Brewing Company 76035 7.20 4.01
NM 3 Desert Fog Marble Brewery 12878 7.20 3.92
NM 4 Malpais Stout La Cumbre Brewing Company 17512 7.50 3.90
NM 5 Java Stout Santa Fe Brewing Company 55088 8.00 3.89
NM 6 Bosque IPA Bosque Brewing (New Mexico) 11901 6.50 3.85
NM 7 7K IPA Santa Fe Brewing Company 29889 7.00 3.81
NM 8 India Pale Ale Marble Brewery 25960 6.80 3.78
NM 9 A Slice of Hefen La Cumbre Brewing Company 19273 5.40 3.77
NM 10 Double White Ale Marble Brewery 20692 7.00 3.76
NV 1 Pour Decisions Revision Brewing Company 10754 11.00 4.14
NV 2 Hops In A Can Revision Brewing Company 10470 10.50 4.13
NV 3 Reno As Fuck Revision Brewing Company 23520 8.40 4.12
NV 4 Battle of the Lords Revision Brewing Company 12196 8.50 4.12
NV 5 Smoke & Mirrors Revision Brewing Company 16287 8.00 4.08
NV 6 Sparkle Muffin Revision Brewing Company 14701 7.00 4.07
NV 7 Dr. Lupulin 3x Revision Brewing Company 23475 11.30 4.07
NV 8 The Bruff Revision Brewing Company 10678 8.00 4.06
NV 9 Hazy Life Revision Brewing Company 14897 7.75 4.04
NV 10 Planet Lovetron Revision Brewing Company 12689 6.50 4.04
NY 1 Triple Citra Daydream Other Half Brewing Co. 30659 10.50 4.49
NY 2 More Citra Than All Citra Other Half Brewing Co. 17126 10.50 4.48
NY 3 Triple Mylar Daydream Other Half Brewing Co. 16310 11.30 4.46
NY 4 Imperial Biscotti Break Bourbon Barrel Aged Evil Twin Brewing 12978 11.50 4.46
NY 5 Double Dry Hopped Double Citra Daydream Other Half Brewing Co. 44975 8.50 4.45
NY 6 Double Dry Hopped Double Mosaic Daydream Other Half Brewing Co. 36584 8.50 4.45
NY 7 Triple Mosaic Daydream Other Half Brewing Co. 20892 10.50 4.44
NY 8 Sexual Fluctuation Equilibrium Brewery 11276 8.00 4.44
NY 9 The Dreamiest Other Half Brewing Co. 13870 7.80 4.42
NY 10 Silhouette: Peach Hudson Valley Brewery 11698 5.00 4.41
OH 1 Dragonsaddle Hoof Hearted Brewing 11472 11.50 4.45
OH 2 Bourbon Barrel Oro Negro Jackie O's Brewery 10205 12.10 4.42
OH 3 Champion Ground Jackie O's Brewery 11986 12.00 4.36
OH 4 Key Bump Hoof Hearted Brewing 18630 10.50 4.34
OH 5 Bourbon Barrel Dark Apparition Jackie O's Brewery 19230 11.30 4.32
OH 6 Konkey Dong 4UP Hoof Hearted Brewing 13252 9.50 4.32
OH 7 Bourbon Barrel Black Maple Jackie O's Brewery 17558 13.10 4.30
OH 8 Vanilla Coffee Bourbon Barrel Dark Apparition Jackie O's Brewery 14887 11.30 4.29
OH 9 Bourbon Barrel Oil of Aphrodite Jackie O's Brewery 12552 13.50 4.28
OH 10 Konkey Dong Hoof Hearted Brewing 31772 8.00 4.26
OK 1 Bourbon Paradise Prairie Artisan Ales 26325 15.90 4.53
OK 2 Bourbon Barrel Aged Weekend Prairie Artisan Ales 13168 14.20 4.48
OK 3 Apple Brandy Barrel Noir Prairie Artisan Ales 34388 12.00 4.46
OK 4 Barrel Aged Bomb! Prairie Artisan Ales 10971 11.20 4.45
OK 5 Pirate Bomb! Prairie Artisan Ales 31348 15.00 4.41
OK 6 Barrel Aged Birthday Bomb! Prairie Artisan Ales 11650 14.70 4.41
OK 7 Barrel Aged Bible Belt Prairie Artisan Ales 22194 13.00 4.40
OK 8 Weekend Prairie Artisan Ales 17198 13.30 4.36
OK 9 Mocha Noir Prairie Artisan Ales 10833 14.20 4.33
OK 10 Bomb! (Spaceship Earth Coffee) Prairie Artisan Ales 11396 13.00 4.32
OR 1 Double Stack Great Notion Brewing 45321 11.00 4.37
OR 2 Over Ripe Great Notion Brewing 13859 7.00 4.31
OR 3 Super Ripe Great Notion Brewing 10026 9.00 4.30
OR 4 Sahalie The Ale Apothecary 12077 9.73 4.30
OR 5 Blueberry Muffin Great Notion Brewing 45076 6.00 4.30
OR 6 JB DIPA Great Notion Brewing 24850 8.20 4.27
OR 7 Notorious IPA³ Boneyard Beer 43528 11.80 4.27
OR 8 Black Butte XXVIII Deschutes Brewery 27363 11.50 4.25
OR 9 Noyaux Cascade Brewing 16587 8.30 4.23
OR 10 Ripe IPA Great Notion Brewing 37825 7.00 4.22
PA 1 Milkshake IPA (Double Extra Vanilla) Tired Hands Brewing Company 24614 9.20 4.40
PA 2 Milkshake IPA (Extra Vanilla) Tired Hands Brewing Company 17858 7.20 4.34
PA 3 Double Lustra Dancing Gnome 10297 8.50 4.31
PA 4 Eviscerated Pathway of Beauty Tired Hands Brewing Company 24997 8.60 4.30
PA 5 Extra Extra Knuckle Tired Hands Brewing Company 12720 8.60 4.29
PA 6 Oblivex Tired Hands Brewing Company 26838 9.20 4.29
PA 7 Intensely Juicy, Dank, Beautiful (Copy & Paste) Tired Hands Brewing Company 11047 5.90 4.28
PA 8 Grassman Tired Hands Brewing Company 13897 8.70 4.28
PA 9 Technicolor Splendor Tired Hands Brewing Company 24449 8.00 4.28
PA 10 Refreshing Tired Hands Brewing Company 21894 8.00 4.27
RI 1 The Other One Tilted Barn Brewery 16476 7.90 4.34
RI 2 The Chosen One Tilted Barn Brewery 16291 8.50 4.34
RI 3 Cactus Tilted Barn Brewery 14489 7.80 4.26
RI 4 Violet (The Original Farm Girl) Tilted Barn Brewery 11541 6.50 4.18
RI 5 Milo's Phoenix Tilted Barn Brewery 13545 6.80 4.17
RI 6 Stalk Proclamation Ale Company 16912 8.50 4.15
RI 7 Derivative - Citra Proclamation Ale Company 17709 6.00 4.08
RI 8 Derivative - Galaxy Proclamation Ale Company 25059 6.00 4.06
RI 9 Captain's Daughter Grey Sail Brewing of RI 131832 8.50 4.05
RI 10 Ethereous Proclamation Ale Company 15523 6.60 4.00
SC 1 Mexican Cake Westbrook Brewing Co. 84988 10.50 4.27
SC 2 Gates of S’Mordor Westbrook Brewing Co. 13521 11.00 4.20
SC 3 8th Anniversary Pecan Cookie Stout Westbrook Brewing Co. 11465 9.00 4.14
SC 4 Sungazer Charles Towne Fermentory 17138 6.80 4.11
SC 5 Sour Blackberry Raspberry Edmund's Oast Brewing Company 10819 6.50 4.10
SC 6 Siberian Black Magic Panther Westbrook Brewing Co. 14220 12.00 4.08
SC 7 Key Lime Pie Gose Westbrook Brewing Co. 70516 4.00 4.04
SC 8 World Court Mocha Blonde Stout Legal Remedy Brewing 28540 6.00 4.03
SC 9 Boy King DIPA COAST Brewing Company 16495 9.50 4.03
SC 10 Three Claw Westbrook Brewing Co. 15391 8.50 4.03
SD 1 Pile O' Dirt Porter Crow Peak Brewing Company 10883 6.00 3.72
SD 2 Shy Giant IPA Fernson Brewing Company 10564 7.00 3.66
SD 3 Lion's Paw Fernson Brewing Company 11861 4.60 3.58
SD 4 11th Hour IPA Crow Peak Brewing Company 15793 6.50 3.55
TN 1 Chief of Chiefs (DDH) Bearded Iris Brewing 31463 7.50 4.18
TN 2 Attention Please! Bearded Iris Brewing 42199 8.20 4.15
TN 3 Double Scatterbrain (DDH W/ Citra) Bearded Iris Brewing 29806 8.00 4.14
TN 4 Wavelength Bearded Iris Brewing 13177 8.30 4.12
TN 5 Tunnel Vision Bearded Iris Brewing 52025 6.80 4.10
TN 6 Double Homestyle Bearded Iris Brewing 29349 8.20 4.10
TN 7 Ever Clever Bearded Iris Brewing 40044 8.50 4.07
TN 8 Steppin' Razor DDH IPA Cherry Street Brewing 10293 8.00 4.01
TN 9 Homestyle Bearded Iris Brewing 119951 6.00 4.01
TN 10 Gotta Get Up to Get Down Wiseacre Brewing Company 77686 5.00 3.96
TX 1 Atrial Rubicite Jester King Brewery 14886 5.80 4.48
TX 2 Bourbon Barrel Temptress (BBT) Lakewood Brewing Co. 15231 11.00 4.35
TX 3 Abide Brash Brewing Company 11037 10.00 4.28
TX 4 Milk the Venom Brash Brewing Company 10073 9.00 4.22
TX 5 Barrel-Aged Legion Community Beer Company 16360 11.60 4.20
TX 6 Bourbon Barrel Hellfighter (BBH) Karbach Brewing Co. 26470 11.00 4.20
TX 7 Cortado Brash Brewing Company 10979 10.00 4.19
TX 8 (512) Whiskey Barrel Aged Double Pecan Porter (512) Brewing Company 13772 9.50 4.19
TX 9 Juiceton SpindleTap Brewery 11321 8.50 4.19
TX 10 Sputnik Austin Beerworks 14453 8.50 4.17
UT 1 Triple Barrel Big Bad Baptist Epic Brewing Company 20371 12.70 4.38
UT 2 Big Bad Baptista Epic Brewing Company 41578 11.70 4.35
UT 3 Big Bad Baptista Epic Brewing Company 41564 11.70 4.35
UT 4 Big Bad Baptist Epic Brewing Company 175042 11.50 4.17
UT 5 Labyrinth Black Ale Uinta Brewing Company 24159 13.20 4.04
UT 6 Birthday Suit Sour Raspberry Ale (23rd Anniversary) Uinta Brewing Company 12237 6.50 3.98
UT 7 Son of a Baptist Epic Brewing Company 68232 8.00 3.98
UT 8 Chasing Ghosts Epic Brewing Company 20718 10.30 3.96
UT 9 Outer Darkness Squatters Craft Beers 28832 10.50 3.92
UT 10 Elephino Double IPA Red Rock Brewing Co. 19309 8.00 3.90
VA 1 We We Ded Ded The Veil Brewing Co. 11131 11.00 4.40
VA 2 Never Never Forever Forever The Veil Brewing Co. 10035 5.10 4.36
VA 3 We Ded Mon The Veil Brewing Co. 15646 11.00 4.35
VA 4 whiteferrari The Veil Brewing Co. 26917 8.00 4.34
VA 5 IdonteverEVERwanttoBU The Veil Brewing Co. 10533 9.30 4.34
VA 6 Bourbon GBS (Gingerbread Stout) Hardywood Park Craft Brewery 27373 11.50 4.31
VA 7 Triple Orange Starfish Aslin Beer Company 18719 12.00 4.29
VA 8 Broz Night Out The Veil Brewing Co. 18269 9.00 4.27
VA 9 Battle Creek Triple Crossing 12898 8.00 4.27
VA 10 Sensei (Double Dry Hopped) Aslin Beer Company 14617 11.10 4.26
VT 1 Heady Topper The Alchemist 834438 8.00 4.54
VT 2 Double Citra Hill Farmstead Brewery 51658 8.00 4.51
VT 3 Abner Hill Farmstead Brewery 53263 8.20 4.50
VT 4 Double Galaxy Hill Farmstead Brewery 40763 8.00 4.49
VT 5 Society & Solitude #4 Hill Farmstead Brewery 35365 8.00 4.48
VT 6 Society & Solitude #6 Hill Farmstead Brewery 26648 8.00 4.45
VT 7 Society & Solitude #8 Hill Farmstead Brewery 16877 8.00 4.44
VT 8 Double Nelson Hill Farmstead Brewery 22191 8.00 4.42
VT 9 Society & Solitude #5 Hill Farmstead Brewery 37745 8.00 4.41
VT 10 Focal Banger The Alchemist 368226 7.00 4.41
WA 1 The Rusty Nail Fremont Brewing 10266 13.20 4.41
WA 2 B-Bomb (2016) Fremont Brewing 10533 14.00 4.36
WA 3 Bourbon Abominable Fremont Brewing 11560 11.00 4.33
WA 4 Peche 'n Brett Logsdon Farmhouse Ales 20267 8.50 4.30
WA 5 Baked Apple D's Wicked Cider 11712 6.90 4.12
WA 6 Cowiche Canyon Fresh Hop Ale Fremont Brewing 14479 6.00 4.10
WA 7 The Fix Elysian Brewing Company 10238 8.90 4.04
WA 8 Gose Gone Wild Stillwater Artisanal 26342 4.30 4.04
WA 9 Dark Persuasion Icicle Brewing Company 21546 6.50 4.03
WA 10 MEOWSA! Georgetown Brewing Company 11664 8.40 4.03
WI 1 Black Gold Central Waters Brewing Company 11646 13.00 4.50
WI 2 Eighteen Central Waters Brewing Company 10103 11.00 4.50
WI 3 Sixteen Central Waters Brewing Company 11042 11.00 4.49
WI 4 Seventeen Central Waters Brewing Company 12237 11.50 4.45
WI 5 Barrel Aged Hazelnut Imperial Stout Untitled Art 12500 13.00 4.41
WI 6 Peanut Butter Cup Stout Untitled Art 10093 12.00 4.33
WI 7 Brewer's Reserve Cassian Sunset Central Waters Brewing Company 22573 11.70 4.31
WI 8 Chocolate Vanilla Maple Imperial Stout Untitled Art 11629 12.00 4.31
WI 9 The Wolf 3 Sheeps Brewing Company 11068 13.50 4.28
WI 10 This $+ØU+ Just Got Serious Untitled Art 11177 11.00 4.26
WV 1 Devil Anse IPA Greenbrier Valley Brewing Company 23921 6.90 3.80
WV 2 Porter Big Timber Brewing Company 12859 6.50 3.79
WV 3 Mothman Black IPA Greenbrier Valley Brewing Company 16716 6.70 3.72
WV 4 IPA Big Timber Brewing Company 15770 6.50 3.63
WV 5 Wild Trail Pale Ale Greenbrier Valley Brewing Company 11454 5.70 3.62
WV 6 Almost Heaven Amber Ale Mountain State Brewing Co. 16700 5.20 3.47
WV 7 Miner's Daughter Oatmeal Stout Mountain State Brewing Co. 14823 5.30 3.46
WV 8 Cold Trail Blonde Ale Mountain State Brewing Co. 13684 5.50 3.39
WV 9 Seneca IPA Mountain State Brewing Co. 15286 5.40 3.30
WY 1 * (Asterisk) Melvin Brewing 25222 9.00 4.14
WY 2 2x4 DIPA Melvin Brewing 92157 9.90 4.09
WY 3 Citradamus Melvin Brewing 25996 9.50 4.07
WY 4 Drunken Master Melvin Brewing 19272 9.00 4.07
WY 5 Hop Shocker Melvin Brewing 14805 8.00 4.05
WY 6 Cloudy 5000 Melvin Brewing 11918 8.50 4.05
WY 7 Chuck Morris Melvin Brewing 12261 8.00 3.97
WY 8 The Walrus Roadhouse Brewing Company 13477 8.30 3.96
WY 9 Melvin IPA Melvin Brewing 88247 7.50 3.93
WY 10 Hubert Melvin Brewing 55069 6.00 3.87
submitted by hugequiz_com to beer [link] [comments]

2023.02.14 20:33 Dekerboi In defense of Diana Prince; an analysis of Thor vs Wonder Woman

I've seen multiple people make posts about this episode. Out of all the DC & Marvel episodes, this one seems to be one of the most contentious verdict wise. Next to Black Adam vs Apocalypse, Batman vs Captain America, and Rogue vs Wonder Woman. I have decided to throw in my two-cents on the matchup and hopefully the comments will be civil (they won't). I also decided to rewatch the episode; it was alright, not as bad as people say it is. A few things before we get started here: since DC has made everything essentially canon. For the purposes of the post, I will be using Pre & Post-Crisis, along with the New 52 and Rebirth. This will be with base Thor only, no Odinforce. As that's not the one Death Battle focused on even in Thor vs Vegeta (It's not even shown in the UltraGuy blogs).

Thor's Stats

Getting down Thor's power isn't that hard to figure out (he's nuke level). Thor's taken blasts from the casket of winters. Who froze both Hel & Asgard, both of which are universe sized. The power of two Thors fighting was spreading energy equivalent to the big bang, the energy being sent across all levels of reality. Redirected the Null Bomb, which was going to destroy all of the Black Galaxy, which is a universe composed entirely of organic matter. Survives an explosion comparable to the big bang. Implies he can destroy a tesseract (a self contained universe). Has pushed the World Tree Engine (it's stated that Thor had to physically overpower the Engine and Tree); as a baby Thor shook all the realms and World Tree. Which is universe sized, there are 10 realms in total; potentially more (infinite). Has defeated Surtur and has made him run away before, Surtur's flames are strong enough to burn down Yggdrasil, which would engulf the multiverse. Jane Foster (who has the power of Thor) beat three Mephistos with Valkyrie. This is consistent with Thor beating Mephisto in his own realm. Mephisto when at war against Hela would cause omniversal destruction surpassing Ragnarok.
With the thermo-blast Thor shook the universe and beat Ego. Shattered a hole into two realities, and a root of Yggdrasil. Has gone toe to toe against Hulk, Thor fought evenly with Doom whose Doombots (which only have a portion of the real Doom's power) beat a Bannerless Hulk. Adam Warlock stated Thor to be one of the physically strongest beings in the universe. Hulk has done the following: channeled the power to destroy two universes, destroyed infinite dimensions, shook the multiverse with Umar, destroyed Nightcrawlers dimension, and punched a hole into Gutter space. Finally for strength there's the God Blast. Which can kill a starving Galactus, and is capable of knocking down Zelia who had absorbed Odin's powers. Odin has sent shockwaves across every plane of reality in his battle against Seth the groomer, unraveling the infinite dimensional multiverse as there exist infinite spatial dimensions, of which there are a transfinite amount of them. Speaking of that, the Marvel multiverse brings up transfinite numbers, an infinite series of infinite numbers, each being larger than the last, all starting with aleph-null; the baseline infinity. Although it is important to note that Marvel uses the terminology wrong, or at least, it's worded very poorly so take it with a grain of salt but we'll give it to Thor anyway for the benefit of the doubt. The Beyonder described the 616 universe to be a multiverse composed of endless dimensions; a myriad of realities. And that was just accounting for one universe. For more information click here. In his fight with Zeus they shook the infinite Embassy, a structure above infinite dimensions. Odin's corn dog (his dick) can bring back all of creation remember kids Dimensional Tiering isn't real.
Thor's speed is consistently street tier MFTL+ and higher. Thor threw Mjolnir to the edge of the Galaxy and back in a minute (100 Billion c). Flies to Asgard regularly which is a universe away and beyond space & time. Catches Hermes who traveled from Olympus to Earth (525 Quadrillion-3.15 Quintillion c). Crosses the universe after hearing a prayer (2 Quintillion c-infinite/immeasurable). Comparable to Jane Foster Valkyrie who searched the 10 realms in a short time period (1.57 Undecillion c-Infinite/immeasurable), and flew to the edge of the Far Shore, throwing Heimdall into the Mystery, and outside the omniverse (Infinite/Immeasurable). Mjolnir is so fast that it transcends time and space (infinite/immeasurable); Silver Surfer is impressed by its speed. Silver Surfer can: search galaxies in seconds, cross half the cosmos, and is stated to have incalculable speed.
I think I've made it abundantly clear how strong Thor is. With Thor's stats out of the way, we can finally segway into Wonder Woman's feats and see how strong she is.

Wonder Woman's Stats

Wonder Woman's tanked multiple lightspeed punches from Zoom, lightspeed in DC is infinite mass (like IRL). Has held her own against Black Adam and stated to be one of the strongest heroes alongside Shazam. Shazam has: rocked the cosmos against Lobo, was going to destroy the universe when fighting WW (universes in DC are described as multiverses that are separated by the Bleed. With uncountable amounts of universes inside that correlate with each timeline. Post-Death Metal has made it that the DC universe is now an omniverse, meaning each collection of universes is now a multiverse. Just keep that in mind when I bring up a universal feat for WW here), lifted the book of limbo (briefly); a book written by a monkey that contains every story possible, even the transcripts. WW's lasso can restore entire timelines. Has smashed the constructs from Hal Jordan along with other Green Lanterns. With the only member of the Justice League able to restrain her being Superman. Rookie Green Lanterns are capable of creating universes, their rings being 'extra-dimensional'.
Hal has made reality bend, sent tremors across the emotional spectrum; among other universal and multiversal feats. Hal is the 5th component of the miracle machine with his ring being the 4th, and Hal can power-up the miracle machine with nothing but his ring and proceeds to do so. The Miracle Machine recreated the entire multiverse simply because Superman wished for a happy ending. Hal can power an unlimited energy source for the Nomad empire, who generate Ultrawar, with the power source being greater than their Ultrawar engine. Hal actually does it. This would mean Hal >Ultrawar which created all differentiation in DC cosmology. It's the final war of everything against everything else, as well as bring the creation of DC 'to ash'. TL;DR Hal powered up an energy source that was>an engine that could destroy all of DC.
Which is an infinite multiverse that has an infinite amount of multiverses with there being an infinite amount of dimensions. There's the Orrery of worlds which is described as "52 brane universes vibrating in the same space, all at different frequencies, within the all-encompassing Bulk (Bleedspace)". Branes are a part of String Theory, namely the branches suggesting the extra dimensions are potentially infinite, extra large dimensions.Morrison himself has stated to have been inspired by m-theory and brane cosmology. The Bleed is above the Orrery, and the Speed Force being transcendently above both Orrery and Bleed. Then there's the Sphere of the gods, Limbo, 5th dimension, Monitor Sphere, and there's the 6th dimension (which no aren't those types of dimensions); which all transcend each other. In short, DC is infinitely layered into omegashitversal++. For more information click here.
Wonder Woman's survived an attack that had the combined force of all the Olympians. Shattered the Cronus Specter, which had the power of the Godwave; WW can call upon the raw power of the Godwave itself. The Godwave is an energy echoed from the essence of the Source. After the Ragnarok War which killed off the Old Gods, the God Wave was generated from the second world. The Godwave is a divine energy source that created the pantheons of Earth, Speed Force, Quantum Field, and Emotional Spectrum. With it being stated to be on the level of the Presence potentially by Cronus.
I think I've made it abundantly clear on how strong Wonder Woman is. We can now transition into speed.
There's the Shattered God feat where WW deflects trillions upon trillions of God shards flying across the universe (52.5 Quintillion c-1.48 Sextillion c, 82 Duodecillion c). Entered the Speed Force with her pure speed which to breach into the Speed Force you'd need to be FTL (the speed of light in DC is much faster than it is IRL. And would actually count as 'infinite/immeasurable speed'). MMH states she's almost as fast as Flash, she's caught Zoom when he was ahead of her in both physical space and in time. Zoom's powers work as if he's controlling the stream of time; he can control how fast or slow he is ahead of time. He's always faster than you, even Wally was shown slower. But yet WW caught him (yes WW is ranked lower than Flash according to the great race, but that was accounting for a faster version of them. As Flashes get faster overtime, WW can still scale to past feats). Wally's outran the big bang (1.89 octodecillion c_Feats_and_Calculations)), Barry can react down to the attosecond, Wally went so fast time wasn't moving in his POV and proceeded to fight Zoom in his timestream (infinite/immeasurable), outran the concept of Death itself (Infinite/immeasurable).
Is placed 7th in the great race and therefore is higher than MMH and Green Lantern since they aren't on the list, while also being placed higher than Shazam (who was at 9th). Martian Manhunter spread his telepathy across the earth in planck time (788 Duodecillion c). Green Lantern traveled a timeless distance-less barrier in an instant (Infinite/immeasurable), searched the entire universe in a heartbeat (35 Octovigintillion c), created universes down to the subatomic particles (2.57 Quattuortrigintillion c) could've created a speed force singularity (Infinite/immeasurable). Shazam's flown to the rock of eternity which exists beyond time and space.

Stat Comparison

As you can see both Thor and Wonder Woman are multiversal, and higher. Though Wonder Woman can be stronger due to Hal's miracle machine feat along with her breaking the Cronus Specter and being able to power herself up with the full power of the Godwave. The gap widens even more with the gauntlets of Atlas. Even Warrior Madness wouldn't help, same with the Godblast. WW can just tank it with her Godwave amps, or block it with her shield & bracelets. She could also just...dodge it with her speed. Speaking of speed. Both are 'immeasurable' and infinite speed (I say 'and infinite' because both of those tiers mean the same thing. The only differences are semantics, I would go into detail about my problems with immeasurable speed, but we'd be here all day and the topic here is about Thor vs WW); though Diana is most likely 'higher into immeasurable' (if you think that's a thing) then Thor because of her entering the Speed Force and Flash scaling, especially the Zoom feat. Using finite ends then the gap is very crystal clear. Thor at best is undecillion c while Wonder Woman is Duodecillion-Octovigintillion, Quattuortrigintillion c. A very big gap in speed.
But stats aren't everything, right? Thor has a ton of powerful abilities which is one of the reasons people think he wins. Surely he'll just overwhelm Diana with them, right? Well…before we get into that I do want to bring up some important points first.

Regarding misconceptions

With characters that have been around for almost a 100 years, there are tons of feats out there, some being misinterpreted and out of context. And I want to go through those, because with a matchup like this it's pretty much necessary.
The Godbomb
The argument behind the feat is that Thor tanked a bomb that would've killed every God including 'skyfathers' meaning Thor tanked a skyfather attack. Though when you look at the full context there are problems with this. The Godbomb was made specifically against Gods and no one else. Thor was being amped by an infinite amount of Gods due to them all praying for him. He then absorbed the All-Black, which in-turn killed him and had to be revived by Future Thor three days later. The Godbomb is still an impressive feat but it's not as impressive as most people think it is.
Phoenix Force scaling
This scan right here is used a lot from what I have seen and it's extremely out of context. He didn't beat the Phoenix here, he at most dispersed it a little. In that same event Thor's shown to get stomped with the Phoenix being perfectly fine like nothing happened. It's noted that Thor almost died and the only reason he lasted as long as he did was because Mjolnir's enchantments that Odin placed let him absorb the Phoenix. To make things even more evident that Thor shouldn't scale; a PF amped Namor blasted Thor away easily and was unphased by his strikes. This is consistent with him getting shit stomped against a PF amped Magik & Colossus and Emma Frost. All these instances were when they didn't even have the full power of the Phoenix. When Thor fights someone who actually has the full power of the Phoenix (like Cyclops in AVX) he gets one shot.
"Doesn't Thor have some sort of Immortality because of Donald Blake & Becca?"
Yes but it's not necessarily standard. Donald Blake isn't apart of Thor anymore and he's essentially a villain) now so it's not like he'd want to pray for Thor anyway. Becca only prayed because she was there, obviously she can't pray for Thor if she's not on the battlefield, she was only there to help in that one fight against Glory. If the prayers were standard then the Celestial in A.X.E. wouldn't have killed Thor in one shot.
"Can't Thor use his time manipulation?" He lost that power a long time ago.
Sword Of Hephaestus
This sword was one of the main reasons Diana won in the episode. There are multiple arguments against it and I'll be going through them here.
"It isn't actually durability negation, breaking atomic bonds requires energy. Cuz binding force". Yeah, binding energy is linked to atomic bonds. But this isn't an inherent durability thing; the strength of bonds between atoms increases as the number of electron pairs in the bond increases, not by simply being more durable.
"She can't see the atoms, though". So? Diana doesn't need to split a nucleus of the atom. To cause an explosion you'd need to slice between the protons and neutrons. That's why she needed Superman because he had microscopic vision.
How swords work is things cut by applying more pressure to a material than said materials structure can withstand. They do this by making the edge of the blade very thin, minimizing the area, making it that even under a decent amount of force. The pressure is very significant at all times. When a blade cuts into something like idk a cabbage, the edge of the blade ends up pushing the molecules of the object (cabbage) out of the way. The molecules can't handle the stress; therefore they separate, as the intermolecular forces are overcome by the blade. Thing is with the way Wonder Woman's sword works, it's different and on a whole other level, if her sword could split an atom and carve electrons (which would need to happen for the sword to work) then it isn't moving the molecules out the way, it's moving through the molecules. In between the space of electrons and atoms they're a part of (and the atoms' nuclei they orbit around). It would be applying pressure directly to both the ionic and covalent bonding that holds materials like cabbage, apple, or really anything together. Her being able to see the atoms or not is irrelevant because of this one fact. If this argument were true then she wouldn't have been able to pierce Doomsday, and slice Darkseid & Superman. Both who were extremely amped at the time.
"Okay that's cool but Thor resisted Kang's dissolution beam, which disconnects the forces between atoms". Dissolution is a noun for the word dissolve. If you want to know what dissolution means in chemistry here is a short video that explains it very well. In short, it means to mix and melt within liquids but has several other meanings, including to break apart, like Kang's beam for instance. This is shown/09%3A_Solutions/9.03%3A_The_Dissolution_Process) to take place on the molecular level, not atomic which is what WW's sword operates on. Atoms are smaller than molecules and someone attacking on an atomic level would still heavily damage & kill someone resistant to molecular attacks.
"Can't Thor tank nukes? Those split atoms. Nuclear fission and shit". Nuclear fission is the process of large atom nuclei getting split down to smaller atoms, equaling a huge explosion. It's a chain reaction. When you get hit by a nuke you aren't getting your atomic bonds split; it would rupture eardrums and the lungs, thermal radiation, diseases, and give cancer. Thor tanking nukes means he has resistance against radiation and extreme heat. Something we already knew.
"Thor can survive in the sun, though, which destroys atoms". In the core of the Sun hydrogen is being converted into helium. This is nuclear fusion. Take four hydrogen atoms to fuse into each helium atom. During the process some of the mass is converted into energy. The sun is nuclear fusion which unlike fission doesn't split atoms, it fuses them. Thor wasn't shown in the core of the sun anyway which is the only way the argument would work, so it's irrelevant.

Thor's abilities

Like I was saying earlier, Thor's abilities are one of the main reasons people think he wins next to him taking stats. We're going to go through them and see how Wonder Woman counters them.
Thor has shown to absorb & drain the powers and life force of his opponents. This simply wouldn't work. WW has been shown unaffected by the Parasite's power draining (Diana talking about the voices in her head was about Rao destroying Olympus), at worst she felt a little disoriented for a short time before the effects went away. WW can also simply take the power back. Dr. Crawford tried to steal WW's powers, but WW was able to take her powers back using her lasso.
Thor has shown a form of matter manipulation, turning a pyramid into trees and fusing the molecules of a target. This wouldn't work however. Wonder Woman's shown resistance to Clayface breaking down her molecules and turning her to clay. The lasso of truth reverted Superman back to his normal self after Circe changed him to a bestiamorph.
Thor has a low-level form of mind manipulation. Thing is Thor rarely uses this and Diana has a strong resistance towards mind manipulation. She's endured mental attacks for 117 days and was unaffected by Maxwell Lord's manipulation. Who in that same issue was able to control Superman.
Thor can seal people away into a glass dome like shown with Hyperion. Problem is Wonder Woman has shown teleportation before even across dimensions. Like the time she teleported to hell in order to save Artemis.

Wonder Woman's abilities

Now that we've gone through how Wonder Woman countered Thor's abilities, let's do it in reverse. Let's see what Thor resists. The lasso of truth can attack souls. Thing is Thor has tanked multiple soul attacks from both Glory & Mephisto.
That's it, huh?

Tertiary Factors

Both Thor & Wonder Woman are both extremely skilled combatants with their thousands years of experience in combat. Thor is proficient in hundreds of tactics and strategies in his thousands of years of living. His skill has even impressed Captain America who knows every martial art and he's contended against Shang-Chi, who just like Cap knows every martial art and is regarded to be the greatest martial artist. Thor has fought evenly with Man Beast, and he knows every form of combat. On the other hand Wonder Woman even while blind she beat up the Justice League and caught Zoom in her lasso; Batman has called her the best melee fighter in the world. Batman himself has mastered every martial art because he's fucking Batman. WW has stalemated Ares for hours in a fight to the death and has proven herself equal with him multiple times. Ares knows all combat techniques through all of time, past, present, future and knows every tactic and strategy. So it's like:
"I can compete with people who know all martial arts"
"I am equal in skill with Gods that have infinite knowledge of combat throughout all of time"
Thor in most fights uses Mjolnir to slap on heavy damage and just start blasting lightning for a good range option. Usually sending down big AOE blasts the opponent can't dodge. Luckily for Diana she doesn't need to dodge it all she has to do is block it. With either her shield or bracelets, things that have taken blows from The Upside Down Man, all the Olympians, Zeus' lightning, and Darkseid's omega beams. Wonder Woman has her own range options too with Zeus' lightning giving her an equaly viable range option as Thor and even better if we consider the lasso of truth. It has no limit to its length and has shown to wrap itself around the earth, giving WW excellent range. Thor will logically have a hard time trying to escape this and when WW catches him her lasso can tell her Thor's weak spots and show her where to strike either to perform pressure point combat or slice him up with her sword. Or y'know she can use her lasso and cut him into ribbons like she did to Martian Manhunter since he would already be tied up.


This matchup is very close. Thor did hold advantages; a more varied arsenal, easily resists WW's soul attacks, WW doesn't resists all of his abilities so that's neat, and he has more experience due to him being older. He's been doing this since 1,000,000 BC dude's going places. But with Diana being stronger, faster, more skilled, smarter (she's shown smarter than the Joker. That would require omegashitversal++, IQ at least), better range options, and has a resistance towards a decent amount of Thor's abilities. I view her as the winner on a more consistent basis. The winner is Wonder Woman. If you read through all of that. Thanks I guess. See ya.
submitted by Dekerboi to deathbattle [link] [comments]

2023.02.14 03:14 Kidnap Instinet had $3.14B up-to $7.01B of Excess Capital Premium (ECP) on Jan 28th, 2021, Possibly 3x as much as Robinhood and Only $2.21B Short of Having as much ECP Charges in One Day as Every NSCC Member Combined from Jan 1st, 2019 to Feb 12th, 2021!

I know it's walls of text, but it's all juicy. if anything, please see the ECP portion and the graphic to go with it (in following paragraph and in the citation portion... it's a tall screenshot, of more text, that's how you'll know). have a nice week <3
TL;dr: Instinet—"the independent equity trading arm of its parent group[, Nomura], it executes trades for asset management firms, hedge funds, insurance companies, mutual funds and pension funds" and "wall street's oldest electronic communication network"—incurred 87.56% of NSCC's total Excess Capital Premium (ECP) charges Jan 1 2019-Feb 12 2021 ($66.98B / $76.5B).1 On Jan 28 2021 they incurred an absolute minimum of $3.14B with a conservative max of $7.3145B out of $9.7B (both figures mean Instinet incurred largest ECP charge that day), whereas Jan 25-Feb 2 2021 the min was $12.53B and max was $16.7755B out of $21.9B.this is same as previous source, but truncated The back-half of the quote above from the HCFS Report could have been found on Silver Lake's website at least a month prior to the HCFS report being released.2
Instinet has an interesting operation, and in both late 2019 and late 2020, it was made more interesting. I look into that a bit but here's a quick rundown.
Nominally they run a couple Alternative Trading Systems (ATS), or dark pools. They receive the biggest chunk of order flow from one of the largest introducing self-clearing broker-dealer firms (APEX) and whose CEO happens to be on the DTCC's board.3 Instinet's privileged in relationship to an AI-powered matching engine dark pool (IntelligentCross; "Instinet will have access to Subscriber execution information but not order information") by being their Clearing Agent, starting Dec 2020.4 They also happen to be subscribers to said AI dark pool thus are able to see the info all other big participants can see (orderbook / liquidity).5 This gives them an edge they aren't meant to act on but, I believe they could, in theory, replicate the AI by tracking their own orders through IntelligentCross' AI engine enough times to learn how to teach it to do their bidding in a very quiet way. I didn't have room to discuss this here this time, will try to make separate post in future.
On the back-end Instinet's hooked-up to both the DTCC, they usually send execution info to OMGEO in DTCC, as well as an alternative (Paxos) to the DTCC (both DTC and NSCC), starting Dec 2019.6 The alt clearinghouse tokenizes the securities placed into Paxos' DTC account that settles on Paxos' bl0ckchain (here's a breakdown), and all this is being done with DTCC's and SEC's blessings. What I want to say about that right now is it's likely Paxos could still clear and settle trades through the DTCC on Instinet's behalf, for at least some period of time, should the DTCC "cease to act" for Instinet.
Thoughts of them being too big to fail kept popping up so I delve into it.

Instinet & Nomura

Instinet = Institutional Networks Corp. Instinet filed Feb 24 1969 a patent called "Instinet communication system for effectuating the sale or exchange of fungible properties between subscribers".7 There's been 490 patents which cite it from 1977-2022. Those who've cited it include (ordered by first citation publish date): Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Merill Lynch, Citibank, Fujitsu, ITG, Intertrust, Cantor-Fitzgerald, ISE, Ebay, UBS, Nasdaq, Mercexchange, CBOE, Overstock, Liquidnet, GFI, Bloomberg, BGC (not BCG), and Paypal (partners with Paxos as well). Once upon a time Reuters (a British company) controlled them (1987-2005) which saw a 2002 merger with Island (a system designed by Joshua Levine; he left wall street after his regrettable invention of the Maker-Taker model...his claim, not mine).8 Nomura Holdings Inc acquired them in 2007, making Instinet an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of a company who's part of larger group with the same name, Nomura. Nomura isn't considered too big to fail as of Nov 2021 (they're a domestic systematically important bank "D-SIB") while other Japan finance houses are, therefore, one might infer Instinet isn't too big to fail either since they don't fit under the umbrella of the D-SIB designation.9

Dark Pools and Deep Connections

Instinet's ATSs, or dark pools, are connected worldwide and Instinet has multiple ATSs with their liquidity interoperating (CBX & BlockCross are current; a third, Crossing, ceased operating 25 May 2021).10 Upon acquiring the BlockCross service, Instinet acquired the exact same State Street team who had created and been running the service, moving them to Instinet's Boston location (BCG is 1 mile away; State Street hq 2 blocks away; all this located where Boston tea thing happened).11 I'd gander some are probably still there.

State Street Connection and XRT

We can see in BlockCross's Form-ATS that State Street actually "maintains a contractual right to establish a FIX connection" and receive the only "Preferred IOI [Indication of Intent]" alert system which all subscribers to BlockCross are, by default, connected to. Meaning each subscriber needs to opt out to not receive personal, pending order-match notifications from State Street. Any accepted order-match with State Street results in them executing the trade and acting as broker and agent. However, in every Form ATS-N amendment (latest one Jan 31 2023), Instinet claims the "connection is not currently enabled" and they'll cut-off the functionality in 2022, but all the legalese to allow it is still in the filing. The first part of that could be a "technically true" filing trick, where the connection turns back on the moment after filing, like a lot of the polishing in SEC filings.12
Since it may not be a connection ever used, it's not worth speculating on too much, however, State Street's right to a private pathways into another firm's dark pool raises a red flag. The language used indicates a 5-year long contract was signed at acquisition. A couple things we infer from this: it may have been a remote support line (but 5 years is excessive and the employees who built/ran it transferred to Instinet already) and some of the transferred employees may've had similar time-related clauses expiring in 2022. So both were in place during the accumulation of ECP charges, including the tandem run-up of GME and the liquidity provisioning of GME through State Street's ETF, XRT.
Said liquidity provisioning resulted in XRT's Jan 2021 monthly numbers achieving, for a given month out of all 9,891 months where an ETF reported holding GME in their N-PORT filings13:
  • 221st highest "Net Realized Gain" (there's 1,159 months where funds reported having "Total Net Assets" greater than $10B, 112 over $100B; XRT's highest Total Net Assets was $1.1B and is 3,953rd largest)
  • 3rd highest Net Realized Gain per Total Net Assets (screenshot sorted by gain/asset)
  • Gain of $249.56M, which moved their average gain per month from $7.16M up to $22.3M, thus was 34.85x their average gain and 6.84x higher than their previous high of $36.51M.
  • They offset these gains the following Fiscal Reporting Year with an average of -$20M gains for all 12 months. I say "offset" because they take a -$121.3M hit Dec 2021 with $112M in unrealized appreciation (66th biggest negative monthly gain, 19th largest monthly negative Gain/Asset ratio out of 9,891 months; all those are personal largest by substantial amounts (screenshot sorted by gain/asset)).
I'll talk more about numbers like these in a separate post so I'll digress, but keep in mind the seeming indifference by ETFs (it isn't just XRT) to taking huge gains/losses because, after all, it means they obtain securities low then offload them high and obtain securities high then offloaded them low. What you'll be told is buying high is a result of re-balancing during a bull market only for the market trend to reverse. Does anyone think having a business model, which exists solely within the stock market ecosystem, being indifferent to the overall market conditions can be viable? It isn't. Search "ETF liquidation". Invesco closing 26 right now, Direxion closing four now with 10 in Sep 2022, John Hancock closing 10, Transamerica closing two, ProShares closed eight, etc..14 This is just in recent months and nowhere near exhaustive. Look at some of those from that short list which held GME (revised screenshot).
Back to Instinet...I saved the most intriguing line from BlockCross' Form ATS-N for last, which is "Instinet does not charge SSGM for executions in BlockCross pursuant as a condition of Instinet's purchase of BlockCross from SSGM."15 SSGM = State Street, so no fees trading for them through BlockCross and completely independent from the maybe-on maybe-off connection! I now must wonder if this affects commissions State Street pays to Instinet for their services related to XRT which can be found in State Street's Form N-CEN filings under Item C.16 "Brokers"?16 Hard to shake the feeling the picture may be able to be distorted so certain numbers don't jump out.


Is a dark pool by a company Imperative Execution. Few things about them17:
  • IntelligentCross is a matching engine for their subscribers' liquidity pools, essentially operating like a P2P network (e.g. torrenting software) able to buy and sell to other users of the network; 'cross' shows up a lot in names of dark pools because, rather than calling it P2P, wall street calls it a Crossing Network
  • Instinet is a subscriber (meaning they both use it and their liquidity is provided to it)
  • Instinet is the Clearing Agent for them (handle orders after being matched and executed; Wedbush was Clearing Agent until Instinet was put into position)
  • The CEO is an ex-Point72 quant (Steve Cohen's outfit), Head of Business used to be Head of Trading at Steve's SAC, a managing director is former senior quant at Citadel, their general counsel was at SEC for 6 years, then their trading technology head and director of trade operations are both "low-latency" guys from Credit Suisse.
  • Seek to become official Mar 27 2023
  • Only offer subscriptions to brokers, dealers, ATSs, and Principal Trading Firms (no hedge funds, banks, market makers, asset managers, retail, etc.; this is done, likely, to help acceptance of their proposal to become official)
  • Had 56 subscribers end of Q4 2022
  • Claim slippage incurred is ~25% that of the avg of other exchanges
  • Have separate order books for both of their matching processes (Midpoint Discrete Match and Discrete Bid/Offer) and their liquidity do not interoperate (unlike Instinet)
  • Their Midpoint Discrete Match book is completely non-displayed as the two orders making up that book are non-displayable
  • Both books have artificial speedbumps in their matching timings (1-200 milliseconds for Midpoint, 150-900 microseconds for Bid/Offer) where the latter being set under 1 millisecond in IntelligentCross' proposal is a subtle challenge of the SEC's current interpretation of 'de minimis' (definition: negligable) under RegNMS Rule 611. If accepted, this locks-in the High Frequency edge for maker-takers via the allowance of artificial speedbumps up to 1 millisecond going into the future. IntelligentCross, however, incorrectly assumed any delay under 1 millisecond is ipso facto de minimis when in reality it is not per an updated SEC interpretation from 2016. We should hope it gets blocked.
  • Said speedbumps' durations are called "randomized" by IntelligentCross as their processes' matches occur within a human-approved daily adjustable subset time range of the mentioned predetermined time range, where the subset is calibrated based on typical stats like volume, volatility, etc. (this is programmatic, with human interaction, thus shouldn't be allowed)
  • Said speedbumps are introduced supposedly "to prevent Subscribers from attempting to discern a trading advantage", however, I'm under the opinion Instinet, at the very least, is in a position to defeat this randomization logic.
Quick note: IEX has an artificial 350 microsecond delay deemed de minimis as it's introduced via a ~38 mile long coiled-up network cord rather than programmatically, it's to curb the High Frequency edge18
In short, IntelligentCross is unique because the AI matching engine, Instinet being their clearing agent and has pending proposal on the SEC's desk. Their position in the market is the middleman to some of the most critical trades given the nature of a dark pools, and Instinet has had the drop on all those trades since Dec 2020 (and Wedbush before that).
I believe Instinet could very well replicate the AI matching engine, should they desire, given the following (I'll need to go into this later to not detract and have enough space):
  • (1; orders) Instinet, through their subscription to IntelligentCross, receives their full depth market data
  • (2; profiling) can use their own orders through IntelligentCross' dark pool as canaries as they'll appear in both datasets, but also provide opportunity to systematically prod and profile the AI's behavior
  • (3; clearing) having datasets of all IntelligentCross' executed matched-orders
Back to focusing on Instinet.

Excess Capital Premium Charges:

The reason Instinet gets these is because they're the last hop before reaching the NSCC. They are a service provider. Instinet getting these is a result of one side of a facilitated matched trade failing-to-deliver the money/security to them, which means they have to report to the NSCC they don't have the money/security for delivery, resulting in the NSCC calculating an ECP charge for Instinet. They were facilitating the strategic failures-to-deliver on their dark pools, the failures-to-deliver were originating from IntelligentCross' clearing needs, or actually may have been originating with APEX as Instinet "introduces certain of its accounts on a fully-disclosed basis to APEX Clearing Corporation ("APEX") the accounts' funds and securities are held and maintained by APEX."19 Also, from APEX's 606 reports "Instinet is APEX’s technology provider, there are no transactional fees to route the orders and all Exchange fee/rebates are passed directly back to the client" and "[d]uring the 10 days from March 1st to March 15th, [2021], APEX routed Instinet flow via Managed Route in which Instinet paid APEX $0.003 per share and this represented 1.4% of APEX's total non-directed flow to Instinet".20
Instinet is very important as it was one of three institutions who made up 229 out 307 "occasions" where NSCC ECP charges were levied between Jan 1 2019-Feb 12 2021.21 Although we have no way of figuring out number of occasions by institution (especially since occasion isn't actually defined), we can visually see ~$76.5B total ECP charges occurred using the figure provided by HCFS. With that, if we remove the five known market participants from the HCFS ECP table we can see this leaves only $3.33B of ECP charges between the other 17 remaining NSCC members. In fact, we can find out 14 out of 22 NSCC members who received ECP charges may only be responsible for as little as $0.15B, or $0.009B each.
At an absolute minimum:
  • Jan 28 2021 — Instinet had $3.14B in ECP charges ($2.3B for RH, $1.08B for Axos [assume all ECP received in table applies], $3.18B total for LEK, Wedbush & Vision [$1.06B * 3] = $6.56B + $3.14B = $9.7B).
  • Jan 25-Feb 2 2021 — Instinet had $12.53B in ECP charges ($2.51B for RH, $1.54B for ITG, $1.08B for Axos, $1.06B for Virtu, $3.18B total for LEK, Wedbush & Vision = $9.37B + $12.53B = $21.9B)
  • Jan 1 2019-Feb 12 2021 (minus previous bullet) — LEK, Wedbush, Vision and the 14 remaining members that received ECP charges incurred only $0.15B ($3.33B - $3.18B), or $0.009B each, whereas Instinet incurred $54.6B ECP charges
On the flipside of that hypothetical, at an absolute maximum (we know Axos had a ballpark ECP of $0.094B on Feb 2nd, and we know APEX had $0.0305B on the 29th; I use these as repeated minimums for on-table and off-table names):
  • Jan 28 2021 — Instinet had $7.3145B in ECP charges ($2.2B for RH, $0.094B for Axos [explained in line previous], $0.0915B total for LEK, Wedbush & Vision [$0.0305B * 3] = $2.3855B + $7.3145B = $9.7B).
  • Jan 25-Feb 2 2021 — Instinet had $16.7755B in ECP charges ($2.51B for RH, $0.658B for ITG [$0.094B * 7 trading days], $0.658B for Axos, $0.658B for Virtu, $0.6405B total for LEK, Wedbush & Vision [$0.0915B * 7 trading days] = $5.1245B + $16.7755B = $21.9B)
  • Jan 1 2019-Feb 12 2021 (minus previous bullet) — LEK, Wedbush, Vision and the 14 remaining members that received ECP charge incurred only $2.6895B ($3.33B - $0.6405B), or $0.158B each, whereas Instinet incurred $50.2045B ECP charges

Conclusion From Numbers

Scenario #1, Instinet often stresses the central party with overexposure and on Jan 28 2021 they didn't incur a relative outlier ECP charge, thus other members are racking up to potentially 34.75x ($1.06B / $0.0305B) their usual ECP charges which if applied and some came up short (which seems likely given the differential), any ensuing default would give NSCC a bit of breathing room but it may cause them to apply Instinet's ECP charge in full before defaulting others which if they came up short would result in what'd appear like a domino default from smallest firm to largest as NSCC tries to get equalized before having to axe yet another firm after each default. One member defaulting should make the NSCC be more obliged to default others, resulting in Robinhood's default.
Scenario #2, Instinet often stresses the central party (NSCC) with extreme overexposure and on Jan 28 2021 incurred an ECP charge 3x as much as all other NSCC members combined, which if applied and Instinet came up short (ECP charges were higher than they'd been the previous 24 months, based on HCFS figure, so not out of question; this is likely due to RH's large charge though), NSCC would be obliged to apply highest calculated ECP charges to all others first but their chances of fulfilling the ECP charges are much more likely aside from Robinhood who we know would have not met the full charge.
Totality of ECP charges incurred by the mostly unknown 14 members can by contrasted with Wedbush, LEK and Vision's ECP charges: Scenario #1) $3.18B of $3.33B remaining charges may have been incurred by Wedbush, LEK and Vision, with the little remaining attributed to the other 14 members, or Scenario #2) Wedbush, LEK and Vision were merely racking-up more ECP charges than others along with receiving ECP charges with slighter higher amounts than others during Jan 25-Feb 2 2021, but aside from that all 17 members had incurred roughly an avg of $0.196B each over the entire 25.5 months, whereas Instinet had $66.98B.
From pg.104 of HCFS report, we can actually glean:
  • LEK got the most, Instinet the 2nd most and Wedbush 3rd most based on the ordering of the two groupings as they aren't alphabetical and the first three of the larger grouping is the same as the more exclusive grouping.
  • LEK is a serial abuser, and maybe Wedbush is as well, but they made good on excess capital deposits after receiving their up-to $1.06B charges each (which is why the HCFS can say on the same page "the charge was ultimately applied without modification approximately seventy-eight percent (78%) of the time").
  • Along those lines, Instinet may have gotten ECP charges applied when they were tiny, meaning the waived ECP charges were the largest ones incurred (we know Robinhood's largest was waived Jan 28 2021)
  • Instinet received special treatment as they continuously had inadequate net excess capital without being dis-incentivized through simply having the calculated ECP charges applied.
  • Instinet's special treatment saw 65.26% of the total amount of ECP charges incurred for all members during Jan 1 2019-Feb 12 2021 getting waived (($66.98B - ($66.98B * 0.2546)) / $76.5B).

The Failing Market

Let's Discuss LEK; There's a Reason I've Given Them This Much Room

The HCFS included this line in their report:
"When a clearing-broker cannot deposit the required collateral, the member is in default to the clearinghouse and NSCC may[, after board of directors’ approval,] “cease to act” for that member under its rules, as the NSCC did for Lehman Brothers on September 24, 2008 and MF Global on October 31, 2011. When NSCC ceases to act, the clearinghouse assumes control of the defaulted member’s portfolio and liquidates it."22
LEK (or apparently just Lek) eventually had NSCC "cease to act" for them in late 2021, "based on the quality of Lek’s funding sources, not notional quantity".23 Here's the critical timeline:
  • 2006 — NSCC puts Lek on "Watch List" (never removed from list)
  • 2013 — NSCC puts Lek on "Enhanced Surveillance" as enhanced credit risk (never removed)
  • 2019-Feb 12 2021 — Lek is one of three NSCC members who incurred a total of 229 ECP charge "occasions"
  • Oct 26 2021 — NSCC notified Lek, seemingly apropos of nothing, they'd cease to act for them in the near future and applied a $300M "Activity Cap" on Lek. This means Lek had an allowed limit of $300M in "aggregate unsettled clearing activity as measured by the gross market value of Lek’s unsettled portfolio [at start of] each business day" (if you didn't know, ECP charges are applied only at the morning).
  • Nov 1-Nov 5 2021 — Lek violates their Activity Cap four or five times, asks NSCC to raise cap to $400M and they're granted it (GME went from $182.52 to $255.68 Nov 1-Nov 3 2021; between $209-$228.96 on 4th & 5th)
  • Nov 6-Nov 7 2021 — Lek violates their Activity Cap again at least once totaling six times (this is the weekend... believe at least the 7th as NSCC issued a fine to Lek that day)
  • Mar 10 2022 — NSCC (along with parent DTCC) confirms cease to act move and confirms the 6 x $20,000 fine they assigned to Lek
  • May 31 2022 — SEC nods upon NSCC's decision
  • Jul 27 2022 — NSCC ceases to act for Lek
  • Sep 20 2022 — DTC ceases to act for Lek
There's no mention of ECP charges being used as a deterrent, it would've allowed NSCC to close any risky positions if Lek failed to foot the bill. Coming hot off the heels of the sneeze, Archegos, etc., no one would've been surprised to see such an occurrence since they'd be familiar with ECP charges from recent reports, then NSCC wouldn't have had to invent this "Activity Cap" mechanism (there's no google results for that term on dtcc.com, dtcclearning.com or nscc.com which is a redirect to dtcc.com, sec.gov has 5 results 2 of which are Lek and the other 3 aren't related to clearing, settlement, NSCC, DTC, DTCC or risk).
Lek claimed to have never failed a margin call, meaning they fulfilled all ECP charges applied to them, which is consistent to what we find by deducing pg.104 of the HCFS Report.24 Knowing that, I must ask: was the Activity Cap a means for the NSCC to circumvent overriding Lek's portfolio and closing out their positions? Waiting until Mar 2022 to even decide, then giving them a quarter to unwind, after first making them aware Oct 26 2021, allowed for planned exits to be made without creating a scene that may have ended up inquiring into just exactly why this 22-year long business relationship had spoiled.
And, did Lek close-out their GME obligations causing it to run the very week (Nov 1-Nov 3 2021)? After all they were left vulnerable considering the conflict-of-interest heavy DTCC board who would be aware of the situation (CEO of APEX, Head of Operations of Citadel Securities, Vice Chairman of Virtu, etc.).25 On the flipside, there's the chance Lek actually had their margin increased while Lek did a 5-month long wind-down after a pretend covering Nov 1-Nov 3 2021 (NSCC's Activity Cap acting as a permanently waived ECP charge since both were morning only charges and covering the same exact risk). We never learn exactly how much margin they met pre-Activity Cap, though we do know they had at least $100M through multiple lines of credit at some point in 2021 before losing those and that they only had a $15.5M line of credit opened with DTCC in Jan 2021.

Failing for Fun and for Profit

This line appears in SEC's judgement of the "cease to act" by DTCC: "[a]lthough Lek claims that its failure to meet its margin requirements would not cause a market-wide failure, each clearing member’s ability to meet its margin requirements is crucial for ensuring the mechanism of a national system for the prompt and accurate clearance and settlement of securities transactions." A blatantly false statement, using a blatantly false premise. The whole world knew beginning Jan 28 2021 that meeting margin wasn't crucial, it could just be waived for as long as NSCC/DTCC deemed. Using Lek's theoretical inability to meet margin makes it clear there's some discrimination happening here, whether it's who's failing, how they're failing or what facts/details to include in reports. How about use NSCC's theoretical ability to apply an ECP charge to solve it all?
The HCFS should've been privy to all this being released a month after SEC's judgement, yet there's no mention in the report. Here's a quick little fun fact sheet they could have included in tandem with pg.104 but didn't:
Out of the top 3 institutions who incurred ECP charges from Jan 1 2019-Feb 12 2021, with 229 of 307 occasions, in order with the one having most occasions listed first:
  1. Lek — had (at most) 1.39% the total amount of ECP charges incurred, answered each margin call that came their way, has had the DTC and NSCC "cease to act" for them
  2. Instinet — had 87.56% of the total amount of ECP charges incurred, with 74.54% of that being waved, had in Dec 2020 started being clearing agent for the dark pool IntelligentCross
  3. Wedbush — had (at most) 1.39% the total amount of ECP incurred, who in Dec 2020 stopped being clearing agent for the dark pool IntelligentCross, with the subsequent three months being top 30 highest Total Realized Gains per Total Net Assets per month while holding GME (you can see this on earlier ETF screenshots, they're the light green!)
Protecting those institutions involved appears to be standard for both SEC & HCFS based on their reports, acting as natural extensions to the kangaroo courts where firms can 'neither confirm nor deny' (see citation for more examples, one which is very concerning).26 The HCFS Report began writing off Instinet's ECP charges in the very next sentence following the chart in which it's presented, on pg.106:
"[...] member firms that incurred 90% of these Excess Capital Premium charges differ in their capacity to fund potential Excess Capital Premium charges, for instance through support from a parent company.579"
See how the 579th citation is referenced at the end of that sentence? Here's the 578th citation, thus what would be read right before the previous quote whilst reading through in proper order:
"Instinet, LLC is a subsidiary of Nomura Holdings, one of the largest listed Japanese financial services conglomerates."

Too Big to Fail

Instinet already seems too big to address considering there was no further explanations provided into why they couldn't stay properly capitalized. This is the exact crossroads where the capital market is being prevented from naturally playing out. The HCFS report refers multiple times to the abuse of expected ECP charge waivers, just look at pg.107, but Instinet only got mentioned to explain who they are and four other times because they're significant statistical points.
The DTCC is being allowed to choose exactly who fails, and how, without fulfilling their basic duty of risk management and applying ECP charges to their members even if it possibly puts said members into default. They're the central clearing party—the ultimate other endpoint of the trades we make—those ECP charges are there to directly protect themselves and investors (particularly their assets) from rogue clearing firms and exchanges/dark pools.27 To not enforce the ECP charges incurred is to protect the rogue clearing firms and exchanges/ATSs before those they're actually meant to protect. If they aren't going to put members into default via the ECP charge when a non-critical member (Lek's claim) racked-up a couple hundred million to $1.06B (Lek inferred), when non-critical Robinhood (my claim, Citadel would disagree) racked-up $2.2B, or when Instinet racked-up $3B-$7B in uncovered risk on a single day, when exactly are they?
MF Global was the closest DTCC ever came to truly liquidating someone. It started with a bad financial report on a Monday, followed by bankruptcy prep starting that Friday, bankruptcy starts on following Monday, then DTCC ceasing to act that same day. Lehman's followed a similar pattern but more drawn out. Lehman began liquidation process Sep 19 2008 via a Trustee under SIPA, James Giddens28, then Barclays had "to guaranty, indemnify and hold harmless DTCC" before DTCC subs ceased to act Sep 24 2008.29 Notice in that previous citation, "[a]s of December 31, 2016, DTCC had delivered to the Trustee of the LBI estate [...]". LBI = Lehman Brothers Inc's, so it appears the DTCC was still handing over $15M a year from 2012-2016 to Lehman's estate from the collapse.30
Nomura, Instinet's parent, bought Lehman's Asian ops and European equities in the 2008 collapse, so they very well may have been receiving some of those DTCC monies. Could it be the on-going payout to Lehman's estate which causes the DTCC to not want to step-in to actually honors their purpose for being in the market? Does there need to be a bankruptcy first before DTCC commandeers a member's account?
To review Nomura's ability to be stressed, we can look at how Nomura took 2nd largest hit in the Archegos blow-up behind Credit Suisse with the following schedule:
  • Mar 29 2021 Nomura releases this.
  • Apr 5 2021 Credit Suisse sells off 60M shares of 3 companies.
  • Apr 6 2021 Credit Suisse announced a $4.7 billion writedown as a result of sell-off
  • Apr 6 2021 Credit Suisse and Nomura's Instinet do successful 'pilot-test' for Paxos same-day settlement, with a trade being submitted at 11 a.m. (for NSCC+DTC same-day settlement comparison I believe) and another at 3 PM with settlement at/by 4:30 PM.31
  • remaining days of Apr 2021 Nomura announced they took a hit of $2.9B and also had credit ratings drop
Who was Nomura Holdings Inc's US subsidiary? Data strongly suggest it was likely Instinet. Who was the US client? IntelligentCross, APEX, subscriber to a dark pool, are my best guesses.

We've Brought Up APEX Enough Times

APEX's CEO, William or Bill Capuzzi, is on the DTCC's BoD. On Jan 28 2021 APEX ultimately restricted trading because the incorrect "understanding that the firm may be required to pay an intraday charge [...] including a calculated Excess Capital Premium charge [...]"32. This means either a BoD of the DTCC couldn't obtain this info (if it wasn't already known) then inform APEX, or the confusion was made up to restrict trading. This comes off to me as pure flim flam.
But it also means that a subsidiary of the DTCC is calculating ECP charges for the very companies which the Board members of the DTCC are CEO of. This wouldn't leave such a bad taste in the mouth if not for the previous paragraph and the fact they're getting the ECP charges waived. Oh yeah, and they met with the SEC & DTC(C) the morning of Jan 28 2021 but this isn't documented anywhere.33 I couldn't glean when this meeting took place, but we do find out the "[u]pon receiving the 10 AM Slice, Apex personnel [...] quickly reached out to NSCC", which is followed sentences later by "Apex’s CEO, Bill Capuzzi, approved of the decision to impose trading restrictions prior to the distribution of the emergency notice via email that was sent to Apex’s clients."34 This is followed, two pages later, with "they received another slice at 11 a.m. EST (the “11 AM Slice”), which outlined a dramatically lower collateral requirement".35 It's important to note the $1B margin requirement that came with APEX's 10 a.m. slice, while APEX confuses the issue by attributing more than half of it to an intraday ECP charge, no part of it was actually from an ECP charge. It's made to seem the 11 a.m. slice came in a lot lower because of the clearing up of the ECP charge confusion, but that isn't the case because NSCC didn't include one in the 10 a.m. slice, it was in fact the making some tickers Position-Close-Only or because GME had been massacred which lowered it.
I've shown you already that Instinet and APEX have business ties earlier in the post, but they're also a user-owner of DTCC (typically having $10M-20M ownership stake which Instinet mentions in their X-17A-5 submissions) and have another type of "Trading Technology" integration from APEX.36


Hopefully I've given a good overview, hopefully you can see why I brought up too big to fail multiple times, hopefully you are digesting the proposed rules and making comments. Have a nice week. I hopefully will have posts on Paxos and ETF (XRT) in the near future.


  1. pg.106, "HCFS Report": https://democrats-financialservices.house.gov/uploadedfiles/6.22_hfsc_gs.report_hmsmeetbp.irm.nlrf.pdf
  2. https://web.archive.org/web/20220523235556/https://www.silverlake.com/portfolio/island-instinet-group/
  3. http://public.s3.com/rule606/apex/606-APEX-2021Q1.zip
  4. https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgadata/1708826/000170882621000002/xslATS-N_X01/primary_doc.xml#partIIitem7
  5. https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgadata/1708826/000170882621000002/xslATS-N_X01/primary_doc.xml#partIIitem6
  6. https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgadata/310607/000090266423001000/xslATS-N_X01/primary_doc.xml#partIIIitem22
  7. https://patents.google.com/patent/US3573747A/en
  8. from the book "Dark Pools"
  9. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Too_big_to_fail#Monitoring
  10. https://www.tradersmagazine.com/departments/brokerage/instinet-agrees-to-purchase-blockcross-ats-from-state-street/
  11. https://www.sec.gov/divisions/marketreg/form-ats-n-filings.htm
  12. https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgadata/310607/000090266423001000/xslATS-N_X01/primary_doc.xml#partIIIitem9
  13. from an excel file I made: https://github.com/x001B/Nport/blob/main/GameStop%E2%80%942019-10-01%7E2023-02-04%202023-02-04_21-11-02.xlsx
  14. john hancock: https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/john-hancock-investment-management-announces-changes-to-its-etf-lineup-301631644.html invesco: https://www.etf.com/sections/daily-etf-watch/invesco-close-26-etfs-shakeup-its-listings proshares: https://www.proshares.com/press-releases/proshares-announces-changes-to-etf-lineup-031122 transamerica: https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/transamerica-plans-to-close-and-liquidate-five-exchange-traded-funds-301499452.html
  15. https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgadata/310607/000090266423001000/xslATS-N_X01/primary_doc.xml#partIIIitem19
  16. search "XRT", under first result: https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgadata/1064642/000175272421194114/xslFormN-CEN_X01/primary_doc.xml
  17. most info from: https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgadata/1708826/000170882621000002/xslATS-N_X01/primary_doc.xml & https://www.imperativex.com/about
  18. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-iexgroup-exchange-response/iex-responds-to-critics-of-flash-boys-speed-bump-idUKKCN0T52JX20151116
  19. pg.14, https://web.archive.org/web/20220121143248/https://files.brokercheck.finra.org/firm/firm_7897.pdf
  20. same as #3
  21. HCFS Report, or see: https://i.imgur.com/1NwpdBm.jpg
  22. pg.64, HCFS Report
  23. https://www.sec.gov/litigation/opinions/2022/34-95014.pdf
  24. "" see quote "Principally, Lek argues that because it has never missed a margin call, including during its reliance on the Lek Holdings Note Program"
  25. https://www.dtcc.com/about/leadership/board
  26. see the way HCFS in their report covered for Robinhood's employee's clear attempt to coax users to sell GME as some sort of opportunistic marketing move (pg.28-29, screenshot on pg.29 proves my point) not explaining presumably learned of short-selling mechanic mentioned by NSCC in relationship to XRT's Jan 27 2021 numbers after bringing it up (pg.30), mentioning Jan 28th 2021 as day seeing lowest percentage of dollar volume executed off exchange without explaining that both helped tear the price down and was due to dark pool order suppliers blocking buy flow (pg.35), providing little data for crucial dates and doing so to avoid conclusions being drawn (pg.37), and dodging the whole "how can something be shorted over 100%" question by describing the mechanism to do so with no regard to the moralistic or economic concerns contained within the question (pg.25): https://www.sec.gov/files/staff-report-equity-options-market-struction-conditions-early-2021.pdf https://wallstreetonparade.com/2016/05/wall-streets-kangaroo-courts-perpetuate-a-business-model-of-fraud/
  27. pg.59, pg.62: https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgadata/1123541/000095013406007730/d25762a6sv1za.htm
  28. https://www.dtcc.com/-/media/Files/pdf/2008/9/23/3939-08.pdf
  29. https://www.dtcc.com/annuals/2016/pdf/DTCC-Consolidated-Annual-Financial-Statements-2016-and-2015.pdf
  30. "" https://www.dtcc.com/annuals/2013/pdfs/consolidated-financial-statement.pdf https://www.dtcc.com/annuals/2014/pdfs/DTCC_Consolidated_Financial_Statements_2014.pdf
  31. https://paxos.com/2021/04/06/instinet-and-credit-suisse-conduct-same-day-settlement-of-traded-stocks-in-historic-first-with-paxos-settlement-service/
  32. pg.87, HCFS Report
  33. https://youtu.be/Hkuz_T-muwI?t=18
  34. pg.83, HCFS Report
  35. pg.85, HCFS Report
  36. https://apexfintechsolutions.com/technology/integration-partners/
submitted by Kidnap to Superstonk [link] [comments]

2023.02.13 00:02 tengrrl Job: NTT Lecturer in the University Writing Program at RIT

Hi folks,

We are hiring two non-tenure track lecturers in our writing program at the Rochester Institute of Technology beginning in fall. The information about the job posting is below! The deadline to apply is March 3, 2023.

Access the job ad at https://tinyurl.com/rituwpjob or at http://rit.edu/careers.

Rochester Institute of Technology has an exciting faculty opportunity for Non-Tenure Track Faculty in the University Writing Program. To review the full description and to apply, go to http://rit.edu/careers, go to External Faculty Candidates, and search for 7487BR. As a member of the RIT community you'll receive a well-balanced benefits package that offers a variety of choices and access to additional employment advantages. These benefits, combined with your pay, provide a total compensation package that can be tailored to meet your needs.
RIT does not discriminate. RIT is an equal opportunity employer that promotes and values diversity, pluralism, and inclusion. For more information or inquiries, please visit RIT/TitleIX or the U.S. Department of Education at ED.Gov.

Non-Tenure Track Faculty

USD - SOIS - University Writing Program

Detailed Job Description

The University Writing Program (UWP) at the Rochester Institute of Technology invites applications for a full-time lecturer position in Rhetoric and Writing (Composition) to begin August 2023. This is a renewable position, with a 4/4 teaching load. Competitive salary with full-time benefits. Two positions will be filled with this job positing.

Department/College Description
The University Writing Program (UWP) is designed to both teach and support students as they write in various phases of their RIT career, from the first year on into graduate studies. Nearly all freshmen who enter RIT must take first-year writing, which means instructors interact with a wide range of students with different interests, backgrounds, and abilities. All UWP courses teach students that effective writing is a recursive process influenced by individual learning styles, social context, purpose, feedback, technology, and audience. The program offers direct and online instruction, in English (and in ASL via the National Technical Institute for the Deaf), as well as one-on one writing professional and peer consultation in the Writing Center. The UWP is strongly committed to shared faculty governance, and faculty members are highly involved in continuing to shape the program through committee work, curricular initiatives, and democratic decision-making.

We are particularly interested in applications from candidates who, in addition to teaching first-year writing, have experience teaching in a variety of undergraduate writing courses (e.g., basic writing, technical writing, advanced composition), and the ability to contribute in meaningful ways to RIT’s commitment to cultural diversity, pluralism, and individual differences. The ideal candidate will also have the ability and interest in contributing to a community committed to student-centeredness; professional development; integrity, accountability, and ethics; innovation and flexibility; and teamwork and collaboration. Applicants who have experience working with undergraduate and/or graduate students in writing centers or writing labs are also strongly encouraged to apply. Select to view links to RIT’s core values, honor code, and statement of diversity.

Rochester Institute of Technology is a diverse and collaborative community of engaged, socially conscious, and intellectually curious minds. Through creativity and innovation, and an intentional blending of technology, the arts and design, we provide exceptional individuals with a wide range of academic opportunities, including a leading research program and an internationally recognized education for deaf and hard-of-hearing students. We are dedicated to building a diverse community, one where employees feel a sense of belonging, and are valued for their contributions and the perspectives they bring.

As a member of the RIT community, you'll receive a comprehensive employee benefits package that offers multiple options and access to additional employment advantages. You can tailor your benefit elections to meet your needs (affordable medical/dental/vision benefits; paid vacation/sick time/retirement saving plan with exceptional employer match; and tuition assistance for you and your family, to name a few).

Required Minimum Qualifications

· MA in Rhetoric and Writing (Composition), or disciplines closely related to Rhetoric and Writing.
· 2 or more years of experience teaching post-secondary composition/first-year writing as the instructor of record or relevant teaching in a writing related discipline.
· Active professional development in Rhetoric and Writing, or related professional development experience.
· Ability to contribute in meaningful ways to the college’s continuing commitment to cultural diversity, pluralism, and individual differences.

Required Minimum Education Level: MS, MA
Faculty Type (Tenure Status): Non-Tenure-Track Lecturer
Faculty Rank: Lecturer
Employment Category: Fulltime
Anticipated Start Date: 07-Aug-2023

Required Application Documents

Cover Letter, Curriculum Vitae or Resume, List of References, Sample Syllabus, Statement of Diversity Contribution, Statement of Teaching Philosophy, Transcripts

How To Apply

Apply online at http://careers.rit.edu/faculty Keyword Search 7487BR.

Please submit: on line application; your curriculum vitae, cover letter addressing the listed qualifications and upload the following attachments:
· Three references regarding your teaching ability and pedagogy, and their contact information
· Sample syllabus
· One page statement of your teaching philosophy
· One (1) page personal diversity statement describing your approach to cultural diversity, pluralism, and individual difference in higher education contexts or related areas
· Unofficial graduate transcripts

Questions, contact search chair, Dr.Ruth Book, [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).

Materials are due to the committee by 3/3/2023. Review will begin immediately after the deadline. Incomplete packets will not be considered for review.

Additional Details

The hiring process for this position may require a criminal background check and/or motor vehicle records check. Any verbal or written offer made is contingent on satisfactory results, as determined by Human Resources. RIT does not discriminate. RIT promotes and values diversity, pluralism and inclusion in the work place. RIT provides equal opportunity to all qualified individuals and does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, creed, age, marital status, sex, gender, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression, national origin, veteran status or disability in its hiring, admissions, educational programs and activities. RIT provides reasonable accommodations to applicants with disabilities under the Rehabilitation Act, the Americans with Disabilities Act, the New York Human Rights Law, or similar applicable law. If you need reasonable accommodation for any part of the application and hiring process, and you wish to discuss potential accommodations related to your application for employment at RIT, please contact the Human Resources office at 585-475-2424 or email your request to [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).

Dr. Ruth Book
she her hers
Lecturer, University Writing Program
Rochester Institute of Technology

submitted by tengrrl to WPAannouncements [link] [comments]

2023.02.06 03:58 ThrowRAKanjah [20m] [20f] Utterly confused about last night, I was out drinking with ex-situationship as friends and now I have to go NC again

We spoke for 2 months last year so not yet in a relationship, without getting into details it didn't work out and we ended on bad terms. Ended up no contact for four months. Two weeks ago we see each other clubbing for maybe the 6/7th time since NC started, she approaches me and asks to talk. We talk briefly outside alone for 10 minutes holding each other and I apologised a lot, she has to leave so conversation cut early - I message her a few days after to ask if she'd want to continue talking but she doesn't open the message. The following weekend we are both clubbing again, she had been left alone by her friends but it appears to me she had then waited for 1+ hours to ask me to walk her home (after ignoring me midweek?). I couldn't leave her there herself obviously so we walk back together as we live close and used to do this whilst we spoke - but she tells me theres no strings attached. Knew it'd hurt as I still have feelings for her but was curious to see how a friendship would work with her. We talk over everything across the last few months, she tells me she spoke to someone else but isn't speaking to him anymore and talks about him for a while. We hug, say bye and she says she likely won't be out for a while because she is saving.
For this I'll call her K, and this is obviously only my understanding of this situation - obviously she feels I have done something to extremely annoy her and I am not denying I have although I just don't understand. Last night to my surprise I see K alone at the bar of a pub we're both in, I approach her and we talk for a while. She hands me her drink and we share it, we're sharing jokes and having a really good time. K asks me to stand with her and her sister who was fairly drunk, she keeps winding us up saying we should be boyfriend and girlfriend, tells me I need to look after the rest of the night. Obviously bothering K she asks her sister to stop but sister is drunk so sort of carries on the joke and keeps pushing us together, I've just met her so feel inclined to laugh and play a long a bit but I do realise K is bothered. K sort of suggests I can leave as we're both obviously a bit embarrassed so I go back to my friends. Before I leave I speak to her sister for 2 minutes alone, K sees us laughing together and turns around and walks the other way kind of as a joke but also not. I ask her sister to leave us for a second and I tell K I'm going to another bar so if she needs me that's where I'll be. An hour later I'm outside the bar looking for her, I see her walking up herself so go over however it appears to me she tried to hide under a doorway. We make eye contact and she is away to phone someone so signals for me not to come over, I go back into the bar. Later in the night she is walking outside with her arm around another guy - then further into the night she stands 6ft away facing me in my vision, I look as if to make conversation but she doesn't even acknowledge I'm standing there. She walks away to dancefloor, the next time I see her is an hour later roughly with the guy she mentioned she wasn't speaking to so obviously I don't interfere as we agreed no strings attached last week, it has nothing to do with me. Towards the end of the night I do approach her to ask if I can talk to her, she takes 10 seconds to look at me and tells me "no", I then if she has a way to get home and she nods. Closing time, she walks right past me with this same guy. Outside about 50 of us are waiting for a taxi and I walk past her, then walk back to get my friend. Once more I make eye contact from about 20ft away sort of mouth to her "whats going on", she turns around and tells me to fuck off, then the guy is with shouts at me to fuck off too in front of everyone.
Where did I go wrong last night? Should I have been more serious with her sister and asked her to stop too? Should I have waited in the first pub with her to make sure she is okay? Should I have not walked over to her when I seen her herself? Should I have said something to her when she stood right in front of me but never looked? What could I have done that warranted being shouted at to fuck off twice in front of a massive group of people? I accepted that the only relationship between us was likely to be a friendship and did not once ask hepersuade her to work with things with me, I did not treat her as if she was mine at all? I'm just so lost.

tl;dr - ex-situationship reaches out after 4 months, we're on good terms for 2 weekends, I spend some time with her in a bar and now I have to go NC again after I've somehow upset her?
submitted by ThrowRAKanjah to relationships [link] [comments]

2023.02.04 08:06 ghostgabe81 Respect Rom, Greatest of the Spaceknights! (Marvel Comics, Earth-616)

Rom was a poet born on the peaceful planet of Galador two hundred years prior to the present day. Like all Galadorians, his life was changed when they were attacked by the Dire Wraiths of the dread Dark Nebula. Facing a threat to their very existence, the youth of Galador were asked to sacrifice their very humanity to gain power to combat the Dire Wraiths. Rom was bravely the first to step up, becoming the first Galadorian Spaceknight.
Rom led the Spaceknights against the Wraiths, driving them away from Galador and eventually driving them out of the Dark Nebula altogether, scattering their forces but unintentionally spreading their evil across the galaxy. For the next two centuries Rom pursued the Wraiths, eventually following them to Earth. Rom fought the Wraith menace on Earth, befriending many of its heroes and falling in love with a human woman, Brandy Clark. Eventually he ended the Wraith War with their help and returned to Galador with Brandy.
The Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe (1983) Entry
The Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe Deluxe Edition (1985) Entry

Cyborg Body

General Features
Rocket Pods
Climate Control
Power Siphoning
Solar Charge


Pushing and Pulling
Lifting and Throwing
Other Strength


Combat Speed
Reaction Time


Blunt Force
Heat and Explosive
Energy Blasts
Other Durability


Energy Analyzer
Destructive Power
Neutralizing Energy
submitted by ghostgabe81 to respectthreads [link] [comments]

2023.02.02 13:00 ApocryphalAnecdote "Smoke on the Water" Cyberpsycho

Hey all! Long-time lurker, first-time poster. Sorry it's long in advance! TL;DR at bottom.
I'd finally gotten around to doing my first playthrough, and I find myself drawn in by the different cyberpsychos in Night City and their varied backgrounds/stories.
One had stuck out to me, though -- a Diego Ramirez at the end of Pacifica Pier. Perhaps it was the atmospheric rain, perhaps it was the nature of the mission. If his history is hazy, the gist of the story seems to be that his daughter was being turned into a doll by Tygers, which resulted in Diego systematically hunting them down. Having found her body in a van under the pier during what appeared to be a bait trap gone wrong, his break with reality is rather understandable.
So far, so Cyberpunk. This mission diverges from the rest, however, if ever so slightly. If you leave him alive, Regina will send a message stating that it's "too bad NC's apex predators already sniffed him out -- meaning MaxTac", and tells us that it's "probably best if we get out of their way this time".
With the absence of the typical assurance that Regina would be sending someone to pick him up, and knowing that the NC Boogeymen would soon be upon our tortured friend, I'd felt bad leaving him in the rain. But admittedly, sitting and waiting with him would probably not spawn anything new -- so I'd resolved to come back to check on him later.
Some time after, I came back to what appeared to be a clean-up crew from NCPD and MaxTac; but oddly, the bodies were different -- and had loot. So because I'm a greedy bastard diligent investigator, I'd searched the bodies that were being gathered and found an interesting shard with the following:
DAN: check this guy out. just found him, borged to the max DAN: barely breathing DAN: pic here DR CARL: That's third gen corpo cyberware. keep him alive! DAN: why? was just gonna finish him off, scrap him down here DR CARL: NO!!! DR CARL: Don't! That's military grade chrome, meaning military grade security. Gonna be useless once he flatlines. DR CARL: Bring him to me. DR CARL: alive! might still be able to strip that security first DAN: fine DR CARL: put him in the van DR CARL: give him some adrenaline and an IV DAN: got it
Since Dan appears to be dead at the scene of a crime on the pier, I don't think it's too much of a stretch of the imagination that his charge likely didn't make it to Dr Carl. Is it possible that this is referring to Diego, and that he was intercepted before MaxTac swooped in? Does this mean that he could still be out and about in Night City? What do you think?
TL;DR: Found a shard that makes me think the cyberpsycho from Smoke on the Water gig didn't get zeroed by MaxTac and is still running around Night City.
submitted by ApocryphalAnecdote to cyberpunkgame [link] [comments]

2023.01.30 22:22 KSA-Courtney Freight Broker Alarm--Double Brokering


If you have used any of these brokers please reach out AS SOON AS POSSIBLE!! If you are having problems with a broker not on this list, please reach out so that we can warn other carriers to stay away from them also. Also, if there is not a broker on this list that I should add to pass along to other carriers please rely with their MC# and what they did.
You can contact me anytime at the numbers at the bottom of this email. If I do not answer leave a voicemail or send an email. I check my voicemail and emails even when out of the office.
I look forward to helping anyone who is suffering from UNPAID freight invoices or claims of damages. Call me if you have any questions or concerns about these brokers or other brokers.
OnTrack Group
MC 1489335 USDOT 3979225
Address: 1500 E TROPICANA AVE STE 105
Phone: 725-272-6637
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight**\*
Transportation Services J & K LLC
MC 1488282 USDOT 3977660
Phone: (702) 447-1522
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
Millhouse Logistics
MC 644584 USDOT 1763801
Phone: (828) 505-8484
CELL (828) 273-6917
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight*\*
Expedited Transport & Logistics Inc.
MC 1055036 USDOT 3317673
Phone: (702) 722-0007
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight**\*
Denton Logistics INC
MC 1405561 USDOT 3853784
Address: 5010 Old Bradenton Road, Sarasota, Florida 34234
Phone: 727-476-3196
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight**\*
Shine Logistics Inc.
MC 1445002 USDOT 3912921
Address: 2943 W PARKWAY BLVD UNIT 15
Phone: (385) 330-0050
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight**\*
Urbax Inc.
MC 1442979 USDOT 3909933
Address: 7030 CENTENNIAL DR UNIT 118
Phone: (708) 300-0035
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight**\*
B N S Logistics LLC
MC 111422 USDOT 3435518
Address: 4719 QUAIL LAKES DR
Phone: (720) 495-4005
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight**\*
Maxgo Logistics Inc. dba Maxgo Logistics Inc.
MC 1452852 USDOT 3924808
Address: 2410N N FOREST RD
Phone: (718) 839-2214
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight**\*
Redwood Truck Lines LLC
MC 1476490 USDOT 3960000
Address: 2504 KINGSRIDGE DR.,
DALLAS, TX 75287
Phone: (929) 801-6442
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight**\*
Investment Tree LLC
MC 1368885 USDOT 3802049
Address: 1555 Bonaventure Weston Florida 33326
Phone: 786-822-6172
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight**\*
Little Creek Logistics INC
MC 1243417 USDOT 3630191
Address: 200 W Wilson Ave Unit 2160 Glendale, California 91203
Phone: 310-956-5233
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight**\*
Global Freight Corp
MC 1177680 USDOT 3534235
Address:426 W FIR ROAD STE 1052, Carthage, MO 64836
Phone: 417-526-4004
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight**\*
Sheyenne Logistics INC
MC 1177261 USDOT 3533601
Address: 19 8TH ST S STE 368
FARGO, ND 58103
Phone: (701) 941-9889
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight.
Pyramid Trucklines
MC 1305150 USDOT 3714767
Address: 6809 Main St STE 1129, Cincinnati, OH, 45244
Phone: 513-991-9959
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
MC# 1187682 USDOT # 3548748
Address: 355 W ELIZABETH ST STE 108
Phone: 956-790-0097
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight**\*
GlobalTranz Enterprises LLC
MC 501299 USDOT 2233025
Address:7350 N Dobson Road Suite 130 Scottsdale, Arizona 85256
Phone: 866-275-1407
Email: N/A
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight**\*
Lead Brokerage Group INC
MC 1461433 USDOT 3937739
Address: 903 MONTAUK HWY UNIT C PMB5022
Phone: (631) 237-8732
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight**\*
Flexx Freight INC
MC 1004564 USDOT 3214406
Phone: (773) 897-3100
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight**\*
Deemer Transport LLC
MC 020640 USDOT 2994327
Address: 2046 43rd Avenue W, Bradenton, Florida 34205
Phone: 541-727-7799
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment **\*
CDL 1000 INC
MC 905208 USDOT 2583971
Address: 212 West Superior Unit 204, Chicago, Illinois 60654
Phone: 872-870-9200
Email: N/A
***Claims of non-payment **\*
FreightTech Logistics
MC 1385366 USDOT 3824910
Address:255 S Orange Avenue Suite 104, Orlando, Florida 32801
Phone: 208-656-1857
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment**\*
Volta Logistics
MC 8955437 USDOT 2567990
Address: 1515 Central Ave NE Suite 120, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55413
Phone: N/A
Email: N/A
***Claims of non-payment**\*
Meelemann & Co
MC 1322446 USDOT 3738505
Address: 8 Campus Drive Suite 105, Parsippany, NJ 07054
Phone: 609-808-4454
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight**\*
Expedited Services INC
MC 1412850 USDOT 3864604
Address: 5008 John David Drive Apt A Killeen, Texas 76549
Phone: 888-480-0408
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight**\*
Glory Transport Solutions LLC
MC 1318230 USDOT 3732644
Address: 8601 Six Forks Road Suite 400, Raleigh, North Carolina 27615
Phone: 919-436-3268
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight**\*
Freight King LLC
MC 1403401 USDOT 3850573
Address: 798 Lawrenceville Suwanee Rd. Suite 400, Lawrenceville, Georgia 30043
Phone: 678-509-5546
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight**\*
Niki Lanes INC
MC 1177716 USDOT 3534289
Address: 3556 S 5600 W Suite 563, Salt Lake City, Utah 84120
Phone: 385-831-0008
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight**\*
Ram Freight INC
MC 1177587 USDOT 3534101
Address: 800 4th Avenue Suite 1016, Grinnell, Iowa 50112
Phone: 641-325-4110
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight**\*
Fast Transport INC
MC 1381431 USDOT 3819261
Address: 3000 Lawrence Street, Denver, Colorado 80205
Phone: 720-605-6050
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight**\*
GG Logistic Services Inc
MC 1437557 USDOT 3901644
Address: 1161 Stuyvesant Ave. Unit 202, Irvington, NJ 07111
Phone: 609-830-8707
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of double brokering freight.
KN Freight Group LLC
MC 1462923 USDOT 3939904
Address: 2370 W Hwy 89A Ste. 11, Sedona, AZ 86336
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of double brokering freight. Carrier acted as LANDSTAR agent, then illegally re-brokered freight to unsuspecting carriers**\*
VDS Logistics Inc
MC 1311384 USDOT 3723261
Address: 504 West 800 N, Orem, UT 84057
Phone: 385-292-5066
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight**\*
Vision Freight Inc
MC 1284858 USDOT 3687168
Address: 136 E South Temple Ste. 1400, Salt Lake City, UT 84111
Phone: 385-485-6642
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight**\*
SED's Logistics Inc
MC 1424348 USDOT 3881700
Address: 1455 NW Leary Way Ste. 400, Seattle, WA 98107
Phone: 425-740-9081
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight**\*
Overknight Logistics Inc
MC 1036792 USDOT 3279803
Address: 6802 East Freeway, Baytown, TX 77521
Phone: 281-721-4360
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight. Authority inactive**\*
Global Freight Corp
MC 1177680 USDOT 3534235
Address: 426 W Fir Rd. St.e 1052, Carthage, MO 64836
Phone: 417-526-4004
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight**\*
Warner Logistics Inc.
MC 1398052 USDOT 3842772
Address: 314 N Plankton Ave. Milwaukee, WI 53203
Phone: 888-874-5972
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight. Authority pending revocation on 10/11/2022**\*
Paradis Logistics Inc.
MC 1325743 USDOT 3743035
Address: 250 S San Fernando Blvd. Ste. 211, Burbank, CA 91502
Phone: 913-900-0009
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight. Authority pending revocation on 09/21/2022**\*
Auto Parts and Services LLC
MC 1405706 USDOT 3853989
Address: 304 S Jones Blvd. Las Vegas, NV 89107
Phone: 323-542-8490
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight**\*
MC 1163696 USDOT 3513373
Address: 2057 A Green Bay Road Unit #A144 Highland Park, IL 60035
Phone: 708-852-3122
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight**\*
Fairfield Transportation LLC
MC 1467536 USDOT 3946813
Address: 65 Possum Drive New Fairfield, Ct 06812
Phone: 959-202-2402
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight**\*
MC 1473466 USDOT 3955451
Address: 3814 Ruby Ave Kansas City, KS 66106
Phone: 913-666-9317
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
High Standard Freight Inc
MC 1206889 USDOT 3577010
Address: 500 EAST BROWARD BLVD STE 1710
Phone: (754) 999-3337
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight**\*
GG Logistics Services Inc
MC 1437557 USDOT 3901644
Address: 1161 STUYVESANT AVE UNIT 202
Phone: (609) 830-8707
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight**\*
State of Trans Inc
MC 1386919 USDOT 3827047
Address: 4718 CAPITOL AVE
DALLAS, TX 75204
Phone: (409) 791-7568
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight**\*
Freight Brokers & Logistics LLC
MC 1223757 USDOT 3601871
Address: 1202 AVENUE U UNIT 1095
Phone: (929) 552-2525
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight**\*
UKR Group Logistics Inc.
MC 1471474 USDOT 3952557
Address: 2304 SUNNYBROOK DR APT 306
NAMPA, ID 83686
Phone: (208) 837-1135
Email: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
***Claims of non-payment and double brokering freight**\*
submitted by KSA-Courtney to u/KSA-Courtney [link] [comments]

2023.01.28 20:57 ThrowRA1TNowA888 Thinking about (25M) contacting my ex(25F) for a special occasion, been in NC for more than 3 months

This would be a rather long post, and I want to apologise beforehand, but I feel awfully confused and need some analysis and advice for which I need to provide the long version. Thank you to everyone that read all the way through to the end, I really appreciate it.
A few years ago, around the end of this month, a very special relative for her passed away in a very unfortunate accident. I was wondering if it's appropriate to text her on the day to ask how she feels and offer support, but I'm not even sure what to say and should I say it.
So she broke up with me in the spring of last year, we have been separated for about 9-10 months now, have been together for around 1 year and a half on-and-off and I have initiated NC around 4 months ago. Honestly speaking I was thinking about initiating it even earlier as I really felt being taken for granted, but some friends advised to not do it if I want to get back to her (apparently NC was going to show I was careless) .
The reason we broke up according to her was because I made a fight when I found out she was keeping stuff for her ex while he is on a holiday abroad. She was hiding that from me because according to her words ''I was going to be causing arguments about it all the time and apparently he let her use those stuff because herself didn't possess them so it was nice to use them when they were given like that.''
As I said earlier, I was furious when I found out that had been hidden from me for more than a month and I only happened to find out when I went to help with the movement of her stuff to her new accommodation. I helped her move the things to the new house, but completely forgot that she also needed help to put them in her room, so it turned out that her housemate and a friend of him had helped, for which I don't feel good and I honestly feel embarrassed that I didn't help but I was way too affected at the time and honestly she didn't even tell me where would she live until a few days ago before the movement, let alone in which room so I couldn't know realistically. It didn't help that the guy was constantly texting and it happened that he was texting during ridiculous times of the night when we were together to which she claimed she hasn't responded ever. She knew that I didn't like the guy because of his actions and our shared history. But there's another reason for not liking him. With her ex, they have been in a relationship twice, the first time for a year-ish after which she dated me for about 4 months and left me to be with him the second time around for about a year mark as well.
At the time I was working full-time while also completing my academic studies and I had a super urgent deadline which was stressing me out and which was important to finish my degree successfully. Then because I had forgot to give her the keys from her old place she texted me if I could bring them to her so that she can give them to her old landlord, to which I said that I'm quite busy with my deadline and if she could come closer in order for me to give them and carry on with my work.
She came the next morning and took them out of my hands without saying absolutely anything and turned her back to me to go wherever she was headed. Now, after this action I was completely mad and decided no to talk to her at all, even though it was absolutely hurting me from the inside because of how close I felt her. Maybe I did a mistake of talking to one of her best girlfriends on what to do with this guy because the situation was going out of control and bear in mind before that she was also claiming that she is a good friend to me. Later on in the week when I spoke to her she said that she first spoke to my gf before contacting me and she told her that I told her about the situation. It's then that I had the absolutely terrible feeling that things might finish and not for the best.
On the next day I contacted my gf as in a few days time there would be a special date for us and asked her how she was and did she want to meet up to talk outside. She texted shortly and coldly that she was ok and that she was preferring to meet me at my place to leave me some stuff and to talk. Then I also had a bad feeling so I told her that I wanted to meet her outside in a restaurant and that she can bring them whenever.
We met on the next day and once we sat down she started a fight with me with accusations that I haven't helped her with moving her stuff and that I made the problem worse by speaking to her girlfriend. She also told me the real story of why she split up with me years ago and that she still had feelings towards the other guy but now everything was over and she only saw him as a friend and that was the first time I was hearing that version honestly. Then after the end of the dinner we sat up and go and we apologised and hugged on the way to her please. Some 5 minutes later while I was talking she stops and tells me we needed to split up. I brushed it off initially as I thought she was still upset but then she repeated and said that all this time I had a tunnel vision, did not accept her or other people's view, and asked me does she needs to cry every time to be understood. I told her that I completely understand her and if I didn't knew my mistakes I was not going to be taking action today to invite her and apologise. I told her that I will be persistent in taking the right actions, but she brushed it off and told me to be persistent for another girl and repeated that a few times, said she was afraid that we will hurt each other again in the future. I did tell her that relationships are not perfect and people have weaknesses to which she agreed but nevertheless wanted to break up with me.
She also mentioned I was lacking emotional affection when there were hundreds of examples where I had shown exactly that to her.
I still begged her to go together, but she was insisting on the breakup and told me that for a year we had been always arguing and that we couldn't agree on anything.
After about an hour of arguing I decided it's a lost cause so I went.
The next few days I was devastated, not knowing on which world I am and couldn't sleep, barely ate anything whatsoever with a constant headaches.
A week after, I contacted her casually to see how she was to which she responded cold but politely and we chitchatted a little bit.
A few days after I contacted her again to invite her for a holiday we had agreed to celebrate together and told her that my friends and I would be cooking so it wouldn't be only me and she was welcome to join. She said she was already invited to one of her girlfriend's home but she also told me she wouldn't go there as she was ill. Then I offered to buy help her with bringing her medicine to which she said she already has. Then I offered to bring her some food in a few days time when she's better to which she agreed. We met, spoke a bit about our relatives, everything felt normal and I went back.
Decided to text her about topics she fancied in the next few days but she was responding with short and cold answers so I stopped for a bit.
Then about a month after I sent her a letter of acknowledgment about my mistakes and how I felt. I also told her that I didn't wanted to push her at all and I didn't expect anything, I was just writing to apologise for my ego, my jealousy and my mistakes. She told me that she needed to hear this and that she's glad that I acknowledged what I did, she also offered to meet up to give me my things back. I felt pretty bad then because I thought all would be over because I was receiving my stuff that I didn't need anyway. When we met she looked cheerful and we had a pretty pleasant conversation about life and stuff. She asked me out of the blue did I choose the place where went out randomly, to which I asked her why was she asking and she responded that the place was where we went for our first date. Fr, I really had forgotten we went there for the first time so naturally I told her that now I remembered and I didn't pick it on a purpose. We spoke some more, hugged longer than normal and went on our separate ways. The next few days I went abroad so I decided to text her to which she responded again - cold and shortly. Then she asked under one of my stories, which clearly had a location tag where it was to which I told her, chatted a little bit more how she needed to go there and then we finished. Then I decided to not text her for a month to let us process the feelings and the situation better.
Fast forward one month after I send her a video to which she responded relatively well, chatted a little bit and then she ended the convo. The next few days I too sent her some things to which she responded cold and short and then I stopped texting her.
2 or 3 weeks after I texted her again to invite her to a special event for me to which she agreed but said it would be after work , because there was nobody to cover her. Sure thing, she came we chatted, took photos, she looked bubbly and went on our separate ways. Few days after I texted her again to which she was still cold and barely responsive so I stopped altogether.
My birthday came and she texted me 30 min before the end of the day to which I replied politely. Then I stopped texting her and a few weeks after she texted me about some random thing to which I helped her but I made sure I was polite and short. Then she told me how I invited her out over the summer and asked me if the offer was still valid. I agreed and we met up. Spoke about relatives and about our holidays, about an event she went to and so on and she seemed pretty bubbly. Parted our ways, gave hugs to each other and I gave her a little something that I knew she liked. Messaged her for her birthday to which she responded polite but cold and called me with my rough name.
It was then that I decided to begin absolute radio silence, focus on myself, my job, businesses and workout routine. I felt incredibly underappreciated, bearing in mind that I have been to her when she was extremely sick, when she broke her foot, when she lost that relative even though she was still with the other guy and we were not a couple or anything and also when she moved to a new place the first time. Now I was receiving this treatment for a pretty long time to which I was fed up. NC looked like the only way forward if we were to improve the situation.
Sure thing, at times on social media it still looked that she was mad at me, other times it looked that she wasn't too happy, but hasn't contacted me yet. And I haven't contacted her for Christmas, nor for New Years Eve.
This week, though is an anniversary from when that relative passed away and I feel guilty for not texting her, even though she hasn't texted for when I had an occasion like this. I genuinely feel bad for her and feel that we still have potential and lots of things we haven't done. What happened was quite unfortunate and I'm still in shock to how it happened so many months after.
I don't know the full picture and I feel that I'll get shut cold again, but somehow I feel that I need to contact her. Then again, I have been so many months in NC and it's been so difficult that if she still has resentment, I am basically ruining my progress and have to start NC all over again for God knows how long. That's my dilemma and would appreciate your input. Then again if I don't contact her I don't know how anything can start.
TL;DR In a dilemma on whether I should text ex-girlfriend for anniversary of passing of her relative when I have been in NC for about 4 months now.
Once again, I'm sorry for how long the post became but I appreciate your time and input.
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