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Secrets of Da Vinci's The Last Supper

2023.03.22 02:26 menorahman100 Secrets of Da Vinci's The Last Supper

Secrets of Da Vinci's The Last Supper
The theme we will address has never attracted as much attention as it does in the current days. The recent success editorial of the book "The Da Vinci Code" by Dan Brown instigated the imaginary, through a narrative that involves all of these matters related to the life of Christ questioning and presenting conjectures and theories, some credible and many others, in my view, without a lot of reasons, such as the mention of the work of Leonardo Da Vinci, "the Last Supper".
Before we talk about the meaning of Leonardo's work, let's quickly address some aspects of his life to understand the context in which all his work developed.
Leonardo was born in April 1452 in Vinci, a village near by the Florence, son of Piero da Vinci, a notary, and a servant. Leonardo was an illegitimate child, having no rights to his father's estate. But his father, zealous, did not abandon him, having assumed his creation. We must remember that Leonardo was born in the middle ages.
The end of the middle ages is determined by the fall of Constantinople in May 1453. Of course the change from one period to another does not occur through a single event. This is a process of transition that involves multiple events.
With the end of the Middle Ages we have the Renaissance, with the resurgence of the appreciation of man as a factor of relevance in all contexts. Begins Humanism, a movement that revolutionized the thought, emerging new concepts and worldviews. This new concept is a precursor of specialization of knowledge, resulting later in the systematization of human knowledge, with scientism and segregation of knowledge that until then was unified.
Leonardo is more a medieval wise man than a person aligned with trends Renaissance because he was not restricted in specifics knowledge like other geniuses contemporaries geniuses. He had a broad knowledge. He was not only a painter. He was a sculptor, musician, architect, engineer, inventor, anatomist, and also an astrologer, although his biography does not to mention about the universe of hidden knowledge. In short he had a universal knowledge. In all areas he left the mark of his genius.
When he turned 14, his father had placed him as an apprentice in the arts studio of Verrocchio who was a great master of Florence. The art workshops held not only artistic works such as paintings and sculptures, but also construction of buildings, bridges and works of engineering, metallurgy, war machines, everything that required creativity of man to make some kind of artifact.
Leonardo soon excelled in all these arts, having participated in the production of a painting by Verrocchio, by order of Lorenzo Medici, ruler of Florence. He did paint an angel face on a canvas and the delicacy of the lines and the play of light, called the attention of the Medici family, who came to protect him. At this time, the success did not depend on talent, but especially the figure of a protector, a Maecenas.
The Italian peninsula, at that time, was a region of many disputes, without the identity of a country, which has consolidated only in the second half of the nineteenth century with Garibaldi. There were city-states, which they lived in strife. Wars were fought systematically, in order to solidify the power of the clergy. In this context, a war was deflagrated against Florence, promoted by the Vatican, for there were many interests of political composition, dominance, hegemony and economic supremacy.
Leonardo facing this situation, after serving the powerful others, as the Borgia, for example, just moving to Milan, had offered his services to the Duke Ludovico Sforza. Just to get an idea of the talents of Leonardo, he presents his resume as primarily military engineer, as he liked to be recognized, Architect, Builder Weapons, inventor, musician and at the end of the list of qualifications is painter and this is just his ability is that Duke engages him. Ludovico became the new protector of Leonardo.
Among the many works that Leonardo executed custom Ludovico is the "Last Supper." The work should decorate the refectory of the Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie. The work began in 1495 and was completed in 1497. In reality it did not complete. By the way, no work of Leonardo, except St. John and baby Jesus was completed. Were several lawsuits filed against Leonardo because he did not fulfill contract. Leonardo spoke "creation is divine, execution is slavish!"
The Last Supper was painted on the walls of the hall and Leonardo developed a new technique. It is often said that it is a fresco, but in reality a fresco is a painting done on a layer of newly applied plaster still wet. This technique does not allow error and touches later. As Leonardo was primarily a perfectionist, he wanted a technique that could shorten the drying process of the ink
This does not mean he was not an expert, but he wanted the drying delay to execute the work with the greatest perfection imagined. So he developed certain dyes and pigments that have been shown ineffective in relation to conservation. The fresco has been constantly attacked by the action of fungi that decompose, requiring constant maintenance and restoration. Disrespect for art is not a fact that occurs only in our days. Note that, by the need to create a passage for a next room, was opened and then closed the door just about painting, destroying forever a part of the base. A similar fact occurred with the Mona Lisa, which is a painting done on wood panel, which had the sides sawn.
Let us now turn to analyze the picture presented. We see that the figure of Christ is placed exactly in the center and if we trace two perpendicular lines, projecting the vanishing point, we have this convergence point exactly on the right eye of Christ.
Thus we have the picture, with Christ at the center position and the apostles distributed on both sides. Around Christ is formed a circle passing through the arc of the door at the back, forming a triangle with the apex up ward and the other with the apex downwards. In the book "The Da Vinci Code", Dan Brown speaks of these symbols in a simplistic way, relating them to the masculine principles, personified by the figure of Christ, and the female, formed between him and John standing right beside him.
As John's features are feminine Dan Brown claims to be Mary Magdalene, who had been his wife and mother of his daughter Sara, giving rise to the dynasty of the Merovingian, the first kings francs (?). He argues that even Jesus to be a Rabbi, could not be single, and would necessarily have to be married. This is true among the Pharisees, but if we consider Jesus as Essene it would not be a fact, because the Essenes took vows of chastity and poverty of course he could not be married. (See studies on Essenes in the Dead Sea Scrolls).
But that does not interest to the narrative of Dan Brown, because it would invalidate the book. Dan Brown is a researcher and I believe he has his knowledge, but I also believe that it is not interested because it contradicts with their commercial interest, because the truth does not sell. This symbolism is represented with two triangles with opposite vertices, is actually very deep, being present in different traditions such as Vedic and Hebrew, which presents two interlocking triangles, forming the six-pointed star.
The six-pointed star, although it is known as the Star of David or Seal of Solomon is present five thousand years ago in the Vedas This symbol contains hermetic principles, such as correspondence, the polarity, as well as the sex and this cannot be reduced simply to a phallic reference. We are not depreciating the work of Dan Brown and recognize who never spoke much about these matters. These works have never been as visited as it is today and this in itself already has its importance, but we have to put things in their right places.
We can relate the triangle with vertex upwards (upper triad=Spirit), containing the principles Will, Wisdom and Mind (Consciousness). The triangle with the apex downwards relates to the matter (unconsciousness). Thus when the two overlapping triangles results in the manifestation of life.
It is the projection of spirit into matter, as we can also see in the painting of Narcissus (below right), by Caravaggio, where he falls in love with his own image reflected in the mirror of water, going to deny its divine origin and losing in the webs of illusion of the world of things, which is transitory, local and temporal. The world of things is composed of the four elements (Fire, Air, Water and Earth).
The combination of the three higher attributes mathematically generates the four material elements.
Let's see. By combining the primary elements, i.e., "A", "B" and "C", produce the four elements, where "A" is associated with "B", "A" is associated with "C", "B "associates with" C "," A "is associated with" B "and" C ".
Thus we have four secondary elements. We also make an analogy with the primary colors, which are blue, yellow and red, that combined together form the four secondary colors, constituting the structure of the septenary manifestation (seven colors of the prism, seven musical notes, seven days a week seven deadly sins, etc...).
Thus, the higher will generate the ternary quaternary, with a combination of three with four, resulting in the twelve that reflect the different basic types of energy, or twelve human archetypes.
The three, four, seven and twelve numbers are sacred numbers, since summarize the constitution of the universe.
The pyramid, for example, is a splendid symbol, it is the ternary seated on a quaternary basis (I and II).
If we look at the pyramid over its apex, we shall see the division four equal parts (III). If these parts are opened (IV) will produce 12 angles (combinatorial analysis 3 of 4).
This results in the Maltese cross, or Templar cross (V), where the center is located the eye of God, who sees everything (omniscience), precisely the right eye of Christ, who is the central vanishing point in Leonardo painting (ternary on the quaternary).
In astrology there are three primary types (come Primary Cause is the Absolute = Universal) and four secondary. The three primary types show human behavior. The secondary indicate the human temperament. Human behavior is determined by the mode of expression (Cardinal, or the one who initiates an action. The fixed stabilizes the action. The mutable amend the action). It´s is the gunas of the Vedic tradition: Rajas, Tamas and Sattva, which make up matter.
We can represent these correlations through the diagram below, where the archetypes are formed considering the kinetic and static manifestation of matter and its modulation with three forms of behavior, producing the twelve basic types of temperaments, according to the diagram:
We speak of the qualifications of Leonardo that among them he held the astrological knowledge. It is precisely this knowledge that is being revealed in his work. He had deep knowledge of archetypes, detailing its characteristics, perfectly demonstrating the zodiac with the twelve signs of the Sun (Christ) as the center of events and creation, which becomes more evident if we observe that the apostles were arranged in four groups of three.
Thus, we have four groups, linking them to the four seasons of the year with an apostle for each sign.
Each station has three months and consequently three signs, starting in the spring, which is the vernal equinox in the northern hemisphere, with the months of March, April and May, related to Aries, Taurus and Gemini. The summer, with the months of June, July and August, related to Cancer, Leo and Virgo. The autumn, with the months of September, October and November, related to Libra, Scorpio and Sagittarius and winter, including December, January and February, related to Capricorn, Aquarius and Pisces.
Another way to demonstrate this is the figure we see a three-dimensional form, with the figure of Christ and the apostles to the center divided in the ecliptic (the Sun's equator).
In the zodiacal wheel, we have divided the signs forming axes, where a sign has his virtuous characteristics, and the difficulties are experienced in the sign placed in opposition. This refers to the principle of polarity, which says that everything has two poles, and they are similar in nature, varying; however the degree and that these polarities can be reconcilable (The Kybalion - Hermes Trismegistus).
To overcome the difficulties represented by shadow, there to seek the virtues that which is light, located in their opposition.
In reality what must determine between the two poles is the search for balance, i.e., the central point is that the figure of Christ. It is to live the way of temperance, the middle path. The consciousness.
Associating the different disciples (nominated by Leonardo himself), we have the representation in the figure below:
Jesus opens his left hand upward, feeding those placed his left. Are the seasons of spring and summer, where there is the birth and growth. The right hand side down in an act of absorption of energy and experiences accumulated by the autumn and winter seasons, related to maturity and death. This demonstrates the zodiacal cycle of birth and death. It is noted that the same correlation is made in that the light is projected to the left and the right shade Christ. The same polar duality is also represented in the mantle of Jesus delimiting the two hemispheres.
At the head of the table, to the extreme left side of Christ, we have the figure of Simon, representing Aries. Leonardo represents in the order of left to right, since the signs, as seen from the earth moving anti-clockwise.
Aries, the sign that opens the zodiac, is the pioneering characteristics, leadership, initiative, and this is exactly the role demonstrated by Simon, sit at the head table. Aries rules the head and the head of Simon are displayed prominently. The position of Simon's ascendancy over the others. But not only is the position occupied by Simon Aries denoting this role but what the theme suggests, because everything results from something spoken by Simon, as the other apostles are commenting, arguing and watching Simon himself, it was told.
If Aries is related to the self, the personality, Libra corresponds to the other, the relationship and the satisfaction of the need of the partner.
It is ideal for Libra living relationship in an atmosphere of peace, beauty, balance and harmony. The figure of John, diametrically opposed to Simon receives and absorbs the full impact of what was spoken, causing it to assume a posture of submission and retirement. John's hands are placed in position reconciliation. The figure actually has a female face, because Libra, seeking harmony is associated with receptive condition. The garment also refers to balance, in that is divided in two colors. Libra is ruled by Venus and Aries by Mars. This is the axis of individuality, and Aries representing the personification of the psychological ego and Libra the other with whom the ego relates.
Next we have Judas Thaddaeus. It is related to the sign of Taurus. Taurus is characterized by personal values, possessions, to have. Taurus has the need to develop a solid structure, have support. In the painting we see that is the only apostle to lean on the table, put the left arm using the table as a shield. The size of the Taurus is solid, strong. Taurus rules the neck and throat and this is very evident in the painting. The attitude of Judas is prudence. He argues and accepted.
This is the value axis and power, having one side of Taurus and Scorpio on the other.
Scorpio is represented by Judas Iscariot. Scorpio relates to the values ​​of the other, the collective values​​. Judas, for he was treasurer of the group. Scorpio is the sign of the depths, transformation, regeneration or death. Ruled by Pluto or Hades, represents all that is profound and transformative. The role of Judas Iscariot, as misinterpreted by the Christian traditions, was critical to the tragic outcome of the drama that is the passion and resurrection. Judas Iscariot somehow was the most loyal of the apostles, because he did fulfill the scriptures. He took the most painful mission of the group fulfilling the order to terminate the Sinedrion following the proper order of Jesus, when he said, "Judas, would you betray the Son of Man with a kiss? (Luke 22:48).
Actually Scorpio is the dynamo of the Zodiac, because it determines the transformation processes necessary for evolution of life. Judas Iscariot in the painting is presented as a spectator, watching the unfolding drama, examining the course of events. These are characteristics of Scorpio. Deeply analyzes, traces the strategies and act at the right time, accurately.
Next we have Matthew, related to Gemini whose ruler is Mercury. Gemini is related to the whole mental process and communication. The mental concrete, the process of accumulation of cognitive and applied knowledge to material reality. The natives of Gemini are slender and agile, jovial, looking curious and considering all possible variables facing situations. They can be considered, sometimes contradictory, unstable, and fickle. Matthew demonstrates some of these features.
He is communicating with Simon, looking at him, but arguing with hands and arms as if he had considering all aspects of what was said. May also appear an ambiguity between what was said and what the group thinks. As Gemini is related to communication and speech relates anatomically to the shoulders, arms and hands and this is what we also noted the figure of Matthew, who is also considered the reporter of Christ, like Mercury (Hermes), the messenger of Jupiter (Zeus).
We have here the axis of knowledge and wisdom. Peter opposes Matthew, representing Sagittarius. It is the sign associated with religion.
Sagittarius governs the higher subjects, abstract knowledge and spontaneously puts into the unknown. Sometimes it is brutish and can express themselves with excessive frankness. This corresponds to the spirit of Peter, who founded the Church, or the Christian religion, with Paul (Saulo de Tarsus).
The faith when taken to its ultimate consequences may be blind and in his defense all can be allowed. Peter's hand is holding a knife to defend his own ideals, not in a threatening attitude to John, by some want to believe, even argued by Dan Brown. Sagittarius, the centaur wields the bow with the arrow to be thrown. Anatomically Sagittarius governs the hips and this is evident in the painting. The right hand rests on it. The disposition of the body of Peter remembers the design of the symbol of Sagittarius.
In the sequel we have Philip, associated to Cancer.
Here we come to the bottom of the Zodiac, or Imum Coeli (Latin for "bottom of the sky"), is the axial point of the unconscious corresponding to all devotional manifestation, the maternal feeling, the origins and traditions. This relates to home and family and Philip embodies this archetype.
With distinctly feminine face, Philip takes his two hands to his chest, as if calling everyone as children to be reconciled. Indeed, precisely Cancer governs the breasts, stomach and uterus. Hands with arms also form a figure that resembles the claws of the crab is the cancer itself.
This is the time axis, with the past and destiny. The past is associated to cancer, the mother, and the future (Capricorn) with father. So Capricorn governs the destination, i.e., what we seek as a career, as the goal of life and social role as we seek and desire recognition. It concerns the authority.
So, Andrew as Capricorn is clearly a Capricorn attitude. Capricorn is cautious and practical and could be cold and pessimistic. As Philip says "come to me," Andrew seems to say "depart from me", because to assume the responsibilities is to calculate and plan what should be done.
Capricorn corresponds anatomically to the entire bone structure, knees, skin. In painting Andrew is the one who has hands with bony fingers, demonstrating the bone structure. Alongside Philip, we see James the Less, related to Lion.
Leo is sovereign. Charismatic, flashy, creative, dramatic, seeks recognition through the exhibition. It is ruled by the Sun and radiates its light.
Leo governs the heart that is analogous to body sun. These characteristics are clearly incorporated to James Minor. Surely he is the most beautiful scenic figure painting. James to take the attitude of open arms, exposing the light, standing next to Christ himself.
Demonstrates an open chest, the heart of generosity, a typically leonine behavior, which sometimes comes to be naïve and centered on vanity and self-centeredness.
This is the axis of the power of creation. If Leo is the maintenance of creation, Aquarius is change and renewal which is also creation. Leo governs the power of the king, the monarch. Aquariums are the collective power, the group, society. This axis is that occur the struggle for power.
Aquarius, with Uranus the ruler promotes all sorts of abrupt changes, meaning always drastic changes. Often in the name of innovation is deposed monarch for the establishment of a new regime, to then become similar with the previous model. It is what is observed with the Aquarian revolutions like the French Revolution, with the deposition of Louis XVI. Napoleon was later crowned as emperor (Leo). Recently, we have the Cuban Revolution, with the deposition of Dictator Fulgencio Batista and Fidel ruling as King-Dictator.
Aquarius is associated in this way, the actions of libertarian, to rebellion, radicalism because it is engaged with human values, such as progressive values, but it is impersonal.
Analyzing the figure of James the Greater, we see that it does not appear in the foreground. He does not expose himself alone, but through the group, through diplomacy and see: Aquarius is the sign of friendship and we see James hugging Andrew and Peter, demonstrating that the strength comes from the group and not on individual attitudes.
Finally, we have Thomas, representing the Virgin.
The Virgo is related to the practicality, analysis and criticism. It also ruled by Mercury, but here the mental focuses on utilitarian and practical application to be given to all things. For that reason they questioned him, details and discriminate. Virgos is in extreme need to feel useful and provide their service, but to do so he needs to understand the cause of things. Within these characteristics we see the figure of Thomas. Thomas needs to see to believe.
Thomas in his act of inquisitor asks to Christ himself, in that puts her right in front of Jesus forefinger. As Virgo tends toward shyness and humility, Thomas is also placed in a position away from the table.
This is the axis of the serve, having Virgin correspond to service pragmatic and Pisces, the humanist service, sometimes not very clear and perceptible, which may lead Pisces to live in a state of unreality.
Pisces is associated with the dreamer inspiration and understanding. Are compassionate, emotional, intuitive and romantic, but for this state of contemplation, if not well channeled, can lead to evasion and fanciful attitudes, having difficulty perceiving reality.
Bartholomew the Apostle is which closes the zodiacal circle. He is on the other side of the table. It clearly demonstrates the Piscean characteristics. It seems that his vision is directed to a point that goes beyond the environment portrayed, a point diffuse and may not realize exactly what is going on. Does not speak, only observes, contemplates and accepts. Pisces rules the feet are just his feet, interlaced, which are illuminated under the table. Pisces has great intuitive potential, but needs to know how he can transform his nature, his sense of serving humanity in a more practical and constructive way.
Thus we come complete cycle of the zodiac, sounding clear that the message displayed in this painting, as in other works of genius. It conveys much more than seemingly suggests.
True knowledge was hidden in encrypted form by the need to preserve it, protecting it from the misunderstanding of those who thought they possessed the truth. What is hidden, veiled, does not mean it is not to be seen. It is only unveiled to those with eyes to see. Leonardo leaves us that genuine arcane wisdom was, is and will be the knowledge which guides humanity toward enlightenment through awareness.
Astrology, by the psychological approach is a process that allows us to analyze, understanding paradoxes, our conflicts, our shadow, our projections, and perhaps, through self-knowledge, doing the reintegration of contents for consciousness, so we can promote the process of transforming into true human, and better integrated with the sacred.
The path continues to be followed.
Astrology shall be understood in this view, showing that the splendor of diversity means that we may above all be tolerant and compassionate, understand the nature of the differences and accept them as a manifestation of the same source of life.
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2023.03.21 09:22 alexsinha The Natural Wonders Of Kerala: A Journey From Wayanad To Vagamon

The Natural Wonders Of Kerala: A Journey From Wayanad To Vagamon
Discovering The Serenity And Adventure Of Two Beautiful Hill Stations In Southern India
Wayanad To Vagamon

Mountains of Wayanad to the Rolling Hills of Vagamon

Wayanad and Vagamon are two picturesque destinations located in the southern Indian state of Kerala. Both these places are blessed with natural beauty and have become popular tourist spots over the years. If you are planning a trip to Kerala, then a visit to Wayanad to Vagamon should definitely be on your itinerary. Along the way from Wayanad to Vagamon, there are several attractions that you can visit.
Here are some of the top attractions:
  1. Meenmutty Waterfalls: Located in Wayanad, the Meenmutty Waterfalls is one of the most popular waterfalls in Kerala. The waterfall is surrounded by lush green forests and is a great place for nature lovers.
  2. Lakkidi Viewpoint: Located on the Wayanad Ghat road, the Lakkidi Viewpoint offers stunning views of the surrounding hills and valleys. It is also a popular spot for photography.
  3. Pala Kadavu: Located in Kottayam, the Pala Kadavu is a beautiful backwater destination that offers a serene and peaceful environment. You can take a boat ride and enjoy the scenic views of the backwaters.
  4. Vagamon Pine Forest: Located in Vagamon, the Pine Forest is a beautiful spot with tall pine trees and a serene atmosphere. It is a popular spot for photography and picnics.

Fly Vagamon Paragliding: Adventure Activity You Can’t Miss

A fly Vagamon tour is a unique and thrilling experience that allows travelers to soar above the beautiful landscapes of Vagamon. This tour involves paragliding, which is a popular adventure activity in Vagamon. Paragliding involves flying a lightweight glider that is suspended by a harness and controlled by the pilot. During a fly Vagamon tour, you will be accompanied by an experienced pilot who will take you on an exhilarating ride over the hills and valleys of Vagamon.
One of the best things about a fly Vagamon tour is the breathtaking views that you get to experience. As you soar high above the ground, you get a bird’s-eye view of the beautiful landscapes of Vagamon. You can witness the rolling hills, lush green meadows, and picturesque landscapes from a completely different perspective. The panoramic views of Vagamon that you get during a fly Vagamon tour are truly breathtaking and unforgettable.

Choosing Your Adventure: Different Fly Vagamon Paragliding Packages

Fly Vagamon paragliding is an exhilarating adventure activity that allows you to soar high above the rolling hills and lush green meadows of Vagamon. This activity involves flying a lightweight glider that is suspended by a harness and controlled by the pilot. During a fly Vagamon paragliding session, you will be accompanied by an experienced pilot who will take you on a thrilling ride over the hills and valleys of Vagamon.
There are several tour operators in Vagamon that offer fly Vagamon tours. The duration of the tour varies from one operator to another, but most tours last for around 20–30 minutes. The cost of the tour also varies depending on the operator, but it typically ranges between INR 3,500–5,000. It is advisable to book your tour in advance to avoid any last-minute hassles.

In Conclusion

Fly Vagamon paragliding is a thrilling and adventurous activity that offers a unique way to explore the beauty of paragliding in vagamon. If you are planning a trip to Vagamon, then a fly Vagamon paragliding session should definitely be on your itinerary. It is a great way to experience the beauty of Vagamon and create unforgettable memories that you will cherish for a lifetime. So, get ready to soar high above the hills and valleys of Vagamon and experience the thrill of paragliding like never before.
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2023.03.20 12:18 alexsinha The Scenic Beauty Of Vagamon: A Thrilling Experience Of Paragliding

The Scenic Beauty Of Vagamon: A Thrilling Experience Of Paragliding
Discovering The Mesmerizing Views And Adrenaline Rush Of Paragliding In The Pristine Hill Station Of Vagamon
Fly High

Vagamon — A Hill Station with an Altitude that Touches the Skies

Vagamon, a picturesque hill station in the southern Indian state of Kerala, is known for its scenic beauty and pleasant weather. Vagamon height from sea level approximately 1,100 meters (3,600 feet) above sea level, Vagamon offers a respite from the hot and humid weather that prevails in most parts of Kerala.
Vagamon’s altitude from sea level makes it an ideal location for a range of outdoor activities, including trekking, paragliding, and rock climbing. The hill station is also home to several scenic viewpoints that offer stunning views of the surrounding landscape.

Experience of Skydiving in the Picturesque Landscapes of Kerala

Skydiving in Kerala An Adventure of a Lifetime Kerala, popularly known as “God’s Own Country,” is famous for its serene backwaters, lush green landscapes, and rich culture. However, Kerala has more to offer than just its scenic beauty and cultural heritage. The state now also offers the thrilling adventure of skydiving, attracting adrenaline junkies from all over the world.
Skydiving in Kerala is offered in two categories: tandem skydiving and solo skydiving. Tandem paragliding is an ideal option for first-time skydivers who want to experience the thrill of freefalling while being attached to a trained instructor. The instructor takes care of all the technical aspects of the jump, allowing the skydiver to relax and enjoy the experience.

Discovering the Distance and Route from Vagamon to Munnar

Vagamon and Munnar are two of the most picturesque hill stations in the southern state of Kerala, India. These two destinations attract thousands of visitors each year with their stunning natural beauty, lush greenery, and serene surroundings. Many tourists visit both places during their Kerala tour and wonder about the distance between them. In this article, we will discuss the distance between Vagamon and Munnar, the modes of transportation available, and the scenic route that one can take.
The Vagamon to Munnar distance between is approximately 96 kilometers. The road distance is about 125 kilometers, and it takes around 3 to 4 hours to travel from Vagamon to Munnar by road, depending on the mode of transportation and traffic conditions.
Modes of Transportation: One can choose from several modes of transportation to travel from Vagamon to Munnar. The most popular options are buses, taxis, and private vehicles.
Buses: There are regular bus services between Vagamon and Munnar. The Kerala State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) operates buses from Vagamon to Munnar. The bus journey takes around 4 to 5 hours, depending on the traffic conditions. The buses are comfortable and affordable, making it an ideal option for budget travelers.
Taxis: Taxis are a popular mode of transportation between Vagamon and Munnar. The taxis are available at Vagamon town or can be pre-booked online. The taxi journey takes around 3 to 4 hours, depending on traffic conditions, and is a more comfortable option for those who prefer privacy and convenience.
Private Vehicles: If you have your vehicle, you can drive from Vagamon to Munnar. The route is scenic, and you can stop at various viewpoints to admire the lush greenery and stunning landscapes. The journey takes around 3 to 4 hours, depending on the traffic conditions and the route taken.

In conclusion,

Skydiving in Kerala is an adventure of a lifetime that offers an opportunity to experience an adrenaline rush while enjoying the state’s natural beauty from a unique perspective. It is an ideal activity for adventure seekers who are looking for a challenge and want to push their limits. With certified instructors and safety protocols in place, Skydiving in Kerala is a safe and memorable experience that should be on every adventure seeker’s bucket list.
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2023.03.18 00:53 nightshadetwine Perfection, completion, justification, and purification through initiation in Paul and John.

"John’s Counter-Symposium: 'The Continuation of Dialogue' in Christianity—A Contrapuntal Reading of John’s Gospel and Plato’s Symposium" by George van Kooten (Brill, 2019):
Apart from the intermediary character and duality of love, Diotima’s speech also brings out another aspect of love that is echoed in John’s Gospel, namely the colouring of love in the tones of initiation into the mysteries. According to Diotima, the successive stages of spiritual generation constitute a progressive initiation into the mysteries, an initiation that takes the form of a gradual ascent on “the ladder of love,” from physical love to spiritual love, at the end of which—as we shall see shortly—awaits the full attainment of purity, contemplation of the divine unity, truth, and immortality. With an allusion to the difference between lower and higher mysteries in the contemporary mystery cults, the higher levels of this ladder are seen as “the final perfection (i.e., initiation, τὰ τέλεα) and full vision”—that is, “the highest mysteries”...
The mystery cults Plato refers to here are most likely the mystery cults that were especially well known in Athens: the Eleusinian mysteries at Eleusis, one of the demes of Athens, ca. 21 kilometres west of Athens and connected with it via “the Sacred Way” (Pausanias, Description of Greece 1.36.3), with its sanctuary of Demeter and Persephone/Kore, which was the center of—as Kevin Clinton concisely puts it—“the annual festival of the mysteries, which attracted initiates from the entire Greek-speaking world.” As I will now indicate, this language of “perfection” and “vision,” as expressed in the phrase τὰ τέλεα καὶ ἐποπτικά (“the final perfection and full vision”) and denoting “the highest mysteries,” is also present in John’s Gospel. Firstly, with regard to the language of perfection, in his final prayer at the conclusion of the last symposium, Jesus states his intention to his divine Father, that his pupils “will be perfected into one” by experiencing the same divine love that the Father has for Jesus... As those who ascend the ladder of love in Plato’s Symposium become perfected—that is, initiated into the mysteries—so the pupils at the last symposium are also perfected into one, and into the divine love...
In the Johannine corpus, all of these instances—of a perfecting into one that conveys the experience of comprehensive divine love, and of the perfection of divine love in those who love—seem to resonate with the notion of perfection through initiation into the higher mysteries of love on the ladder of love. This combination of perfection and love is altogether absent from the Synoptic Gospels. Is it a coincidence that Lazarus, who is described to Jesus as “him whom you love” (11:3), is also ambiguously described as “the one who has finished” (ὁ τετελευτηκώς; 11:39)—meaning “the one who has finished life, who has died,” “the deceased”—but, in a sense, only apparently so, because he “has fallen asleep” and needs to be awoken from his sleep, as Jesus says (11:11–14), and thus seems to be the one who is initiated into death and resurrection? Hence the beloved pupil (inasmuch as he seems to be identical with Lazarus) is not expected to die again (21:21–23), and he is also the first who, seemingly from his own experience (if he is indeed identical with Lazarus), understands upon seeing the empty tomb (and especially because he notices the separate position of the σουδάριον, the facial covering that he himself had worn when he walked out of his tomb; 20:7, cf. 11:44) that Jesus has been brought to life again (20:8). Consequently, there seems to be a wordplay between “being perfected” or “initiated” (τετελειωμένος; 17:23) and “having finished” or “died” (τετελευτηκώς; 11:39), between τελειόω and τελευτάω.
A similar wordplay between τέλειος / τέλεος (“perfect,” “initiated”), τελευτάω (“to finish,” “to come to an end”), and τὸ τέλος (“the end”) is made in Diotima’s speech, as the final perfection (τὰ τέλεα; 210a) and full vision of the highest mysteries consist in the fact that those who are initiated into them and ascend the ladder of love “end” their former forms of knowledge and love, “come to an end,” “issue in,” and are thus fully initiated into the highest form of knowledge and love, which focuses on the very essence of beauty itself... A similarly playful combination of cognate forms such as τελέω, τελειόω, τελευτάω, and τὸ τέλος also occurs in the Gospel of John, not only with regard to the pupils who are perfected and initiated into one, and with regard to Lazarus, but also with respect to Jesus himself: he loves his pupils “till the end” (εἰς τέλος), as the author notes in his description of the last symposium (13:1), and it is at this symposium that he talks about his pupils’ perfection and initiation into one (17:23) before he finishes his life by exclaiming, again in marked difference from the Synoptic Gospels: “It has been finished, it has been perfected” (Τετέλεσται; 19:30). Both Lazarus’s and Jesus’s deaths are described in the ambiguous terminology of finishing, perfection, and initiation, and thus understood as initiations into a death that is followed by a resurrection, just as in the mystery religions. It seems that Jesus’s final exclamation, “It has been finished” (Τετέλεσται), signals the end of such an initiation, thus putting the event of his death on a par with the place of initiation at the Eleusinian mysteries, which—as becomes clear in Plutarch’s description of the building of the Eleusinian sanctuary—is called a τελεστήριον, a place for initiation...
This is by no means the only allusion to the Eleusinian mysteries in John’s Gospel. Just before his death, at the beginning of the last festival that he attends in the Jerusalem temple, it is the very Greeks who wish to see Jesus whom he answers with a reference to his approaching death, cast in a hidden allusion to the Eleusinain mysteries, which revolve around the contemplation of an ear of wheat that was seen as the fruit of the resurrection of Aphrodite/ Kore:56 “unless a grain of wheat falls into the earth and dies, it remains just a single grain; but if it dies, it bears much fruit” (12:24)... What the Gospel of John reveals is that its author follows Diotima’s speech even in its use of initiation terminology and its reference to the Eleusinian mysteries. Whereas the annual festival of the Eleusinian mysteries at the τελεστήριον of the sanctuary of Demeter and Persephone/Kore at Athens attracted religious seekers from the entire Greek-speaking world, the author of John’s Gospel mirrors and inverts this festival in the annual Passover festival at the Jerusalem temple, which is visited by Greeks who seek Jesus and see the Eleusinian mysteries accomplished in him, whose very body is a temple (2:19–21) and a place of initiation (τελεστήριον; 19:30).
Among the Gentiles Greco-Roman Religion and Christianity (Yale University Press, 2009), Luke Timothy Johnson:
Two cultic activities of early assemblies would easily be recognized by members of Greco-Roman religious associations. The first was baptism, the ritual of initiation that marked entry into the community. As an initiatory ritual, it was notable primarily for its simplicity and its singularity; in the Mysteries, initiations tended to be complex and multiple. For Jewish believers, baptismal washing for males would represent an addition to the Jewish ritual of circumcision; for Gentile converts, baptism replaced circumcision (Col 2:11-12)-a circumstance that also could be the occasion for conflict. The second cultic activity was the meal. Some version of "breaking bread in houses" (Acts 2:42, 46) that Paul calls the "Lord's Banquet" (kyriakon deipnon; 1 Cor 11:20) was celebrated in the gathered assembly, probably on the day of resurrection, the first day of the week (1 Cor 16:2; see Rev 1:10). The rituals of initiation and meals were occasions for enacting the presence of the risen Lord in the assembly and for remembering the words and deeds of Jesus in the context of his continuing powerful presence... As he reports the risen Lord saying to him when Paul asked to be freed from the stake in his flesh, "My grace [charis-that is, "benefit"] is sufficient for you, for [my] power [dynamis] is brought to perfection [teleitai] in weakness" (2 Cor 12:9). ...
Paul's response to those Colossians who, after their baptism into Christ, pursued further "perfection" or "maturity" through circumcision, asceticism, and visions-all instinctive to Religiousness A as found in Greco-Roman religion makes the role of thinking even more explicit. Their maturity does not result from adding on but from digging deeper. Paul wants them to be filled with "recognition of [God's] will in all wisdom and spiritual understanding" (Col 1:9). To what end? That they might "walk worthily of the Lord in everything pleasing, bearing fruit in every good deed and growing in the recognition of God" (1:10). Paul connects this growth in knowledge and in moral behavior precisely with the divine dynamis in which they had become participants... Paul again argues morally from their religious experience of baptism, in which they were "buried together with him" and were "raised with him" through faith (Col 2:12). If then they died with Christ (2:20) and if they were raised with him (3:1), that ritual pattern should determine their moral behavior: they should put to death all modes of vice and "put on" the new humanity, resisting all impulses that drive them to rivalry and competition and instead showing toward each other the same compassion that was shown them (3:12-13). And over all these, Paul says, they should put on agape, which is the bond of perfection (teleiotetos, or maturity)... Paul's language of "perfection" echoes that used for the Mysteries; see Phil 1:6; p2; Gal 3=3; 2 Cor 8:6, 11; Rom 15:28; and R. S. Ascough, "The Completion of a Religious Duty: The Background of 2 Cor 8:1-15," New Testament Studies 42 (1996): 584-599.
Mystery Cults, Theatre and Athenian Politics: A Reading of Euripides' Bacchae and Aristophanes' Frogs (Bloomsbury Academic, 2023), Luigi Barzini:
Initiation (τελετή) from τελεῖν (accomplish, finish), originally meant ‘accomplishment’, ‘performance’. The term is characteristically used to denote initiation in the mysteries, and in plural to mystic rites practised at initiation, such as the festival accompanied by mystic rites. This term covers a wide semantic field. Meanings include ‘initiation in the mysteries’ but also ‘accomplishment’, ‘fulfilment’, ‘perfection’ and ‘completion’, terms that express the spiritual weight that mystery initiation had for the Greeks in terms of the spiritual state of the individual.
As I've mentioned before, Greco-Roman initiation rituals seem to be influenced by the Egyptian mortuary ritual. Diodorus Siculus in his Library of Histories (1.96.4–6) says:
Orpheus, for instance, brought from Egypt most of his mystic ceremonies, the orgiastic rites that accompanied his wanderings, and his fabulous account of his experiences in Hades. [...] and the punishments in Hades of the unrighteous, the Fields of the Righteous, and the fantastic conceptions, current among the many, which are figments of the imagination – all these were introduced by Orpheus in imitation of the Egyptian funeral customs.
You also find this concept of "perfection" and "completion" in the Egyptian mortuary ritual. For Paul, the concept of "perfection" is related to morality. Paul also says that the perishable must put on imperishability.
1 Corinthians 15:
For this perishable body must put on imperishability, and this mortal body must put on immortality. When this perishable body puts on imperishability and this mortal body puts on immortality, then the saying that is written will be fulfilled: “Death has been swallowed up in victory.” “Where, O death, is your victory? Where, O death, is your sting?” The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law."
Death and Salvation in Ancient Egypt (Cornell University Press, 2005), Jan Assmann:
The Egyptians wanted to overcome death in both kinds of time, and to do this, they relied on both Re and Osiris... To achieve this goal of Osirian continuation, they needed embalming, mummification, and, above all, the Judgment of the Dead. The concept of completion/perfection, Egyptian nfrw, not only had connotations of beauty, perfection, and imperishability but also, and above all, connotations of virtue and righteousness, of moral perfection and conformance with the norms of maat. From djet-time, there arose a moral perspective. Only good could continue unchangeably; evil, bad, uncleanliness, and imperfection were given over to perishability. The moral qualities of a result, that is, its conformance to maat, decided its imperishability... The Judgment of the Dead represented an extreme spiritualizing and ethicizing of the mythical concept of vindicating the deceased against death... The guilt of the deceased was that which stood in the way of his transformation into the eternal form of a “transfigured ancestral spirit.” It was the Egyptian form of the Pauline concept, “the wages of sin is death” (Romans 6:23)... He who is vindicated in the Judgment of the Dead will “stride freely like the lords of eternity,” he will be accepted among the gods. He will thus not only enjoy continuance on earth but also immortality in the next world... This was the moment when the process of life turned into the unchangeable and indestructible permanence of Wennefer [= Osiris], the “completed lasting one”... There is good reason to think that ancient Egyptian burial customs lived on in the Hellenistic Isis mysteries, though in the latter case, they were enacted and interpreted not as a burial of the deceased but as an initiation of the living...
"Death and Initiation in the Funerary Religion of Ancient Egypt", Jan Assmann in Religion and Philosophy in Ancient Egypt, Yale Egyptological Studies 3, 1989:
The embalming process, to which it refers, is related to the topic of initiation in manifold ways. It is conceived not so much as a preservation of the corpse, but rather as its transfiguration to a new body: one "filled with magic," the perishable substances of which have been replaced by everlasting ones, resting in the mummy-cover as if it were a kind of magic garment.
In 1 Corinthians 15 Paul also says:
But someone will ask, “How are the dead raised? With what kind of body do they come?” Fool! What you sow does not come to life unless it dies. And as for what you sow, you do not sow the body that is to be but a bare seed, perhaps of wheat or of some other grain... What is sown is perishable; what is raised is imperishable. It is sown in dishonor; it is raised in glory. It is sown in weakness; it is raised in power. It is sown a physical body; it is raised a spiritual body. If there is a physical body, there is also a spiritual body.
Mummies & Magic: The Funerary Arts of Ancient Egypt (Dallas Museum of Art, 1993), Sue D'Auria and Peter Lacovara::
The underlying idea was that life can only exist, be renewed, and be regained through death. Not only human beings, but also such gods as Re and Osiris were mortal: They had life in the sense that they had died and arisen from the dead... Akh is usually translated as “spirit” but its corporeal aspect should not be neglected. A bodily spirit or spiritual body may seem a contradiction in terms, but it is not unknown in religious, or at least Christian, terminology: If there is a physical body, there is also a spiritual body.
In both Paul and John the planting and sprouting of a seed is used as a metaphor for resurrection which you also find in the Egyptian mortuary cult and the mystery cults. In John 12:24 Jesus says:
“unless a grain of wheat falls into the earth and dies, it remains just a single grain; but if it dies, it bears much fruit”
Ancient Egyptian Magic (William Morrow Paperbacks, 1998), Bob Brier:
One of the most interesting magical objects in this room was a wooden mold in the shape of Osiris. This mold was lined with linen and filled with rich topsoil deposited by the Nile. Seeds, mostly for grain, were planted in the topsoil. When they sprouted, they would be a green, living representation for Osiris, symbolizing resurrection. Tutankhamen had sought to identify himself with Osiris in that way and bring about his resurrection.
All Things Ancient Egypt: An Encyclopedia of the Ancient Egyptian World (ABC-CLIO, 2019), Lisa K. Sabbahy:
Osiris beds were placed in tombs. These consisted of a hollow frame in the shape of the mummiform Osiris that was filled with earth in which seeds were sown. These would have then grown after the tomb was sealed, actualizing the resurrection of Osiris and, hence, that of the deceased.
Another important aspect of the Egyptian mortuary ritual is "justification". In Romans 5 Paul says:
Results of Justification:
Therefore, since we are justified by faith, we[a] have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have obtained access to this grace in which we stand, and we boast in our hope of sharing the glory of God... Much more surely, therefore, since we have now been justified by his blood, will we be saved through him from the wrath of God... Therefore just as one man’s trespass led to condemnation for all, so one man’s act of righteousness leads to justification and life for all... But law came in, so that the trespass might increase, but where sin increased, grace abounded all the more, so that, just as sin reigned in death, so grace might also reign through justification leading to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.
Following Osiris: Perspectives on the Osirian Afterlife from Four Millennia (Oxford University Press, 2017), Mark Smith:
In the same way that Osiris was restored to life and declared free of wrongdoing, so all who died hoped to be revived and justified... As in earlier periods, those who passed the test of judgement were declared ‘justified' and accepted into the following of Osiris... In the same way that justification and acceptance into the company of Osiris’s followers offered a means of social reintegration for those whom death had cut off from friends and relations, the mummification rites restored the physical integrity of their bodies, transfiguring them and endowing them with a new eternal form... the concepts of mummification and justification were closely linked...
"Death and Initiation in the Funerary Religion of Ancient Egypt", Jan Assmann in Religion and Philosophy in Ancient Egypt, Yale Egyptological Studies 3, 1989:
"Justification" is the central concept of Egyptian funerary religion in which all aspects of the "overcoming of death" and of salvation in the next world come together... The deceased must justify himself: with respect to the enemy (as the personification of death)... with respect to the divine prosecutor and judge, in whose presence the deceased must answer for his conduct on earth and prove himself worthy of eternal salvation...
In Romans 6 Pauls says:
Do you not know that all of us who were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? Therefore we were buried with him by baptism into death, so that, just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, so we also might walk in newness of life. For if we have been united with him in a death like his, we will certainly be united with him in a resurrection like his. We know that our old self was crucified with him... For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.
So in baptism Christians are symbolically crucified with Christ and raised to new life like Christ. In the Egyptian mortuary ritual Egyptians were first purified with water and then symbolically dismembered like Osiris and raised to new life like Osiris.
Death and Salvation in Ancient Egypt (Cornell University Press, 2005), Jan Assmann:
We now understand why the embalming ritual had to portray the corpse not just as a lifeless body but as a dismembered one... The myth dramatized this condition, telling how Seth slew his brother Osiris, tore his body into pieces, and scattered his limbs throughout all of Egypt. In the embalming ritual, this myth was played out for each deceased person, even if he had in no way been killed and dismembered but rather had died a peaceful, natural death... This first phase was carried out in the name of purification. Everything “foul,” that is, everything perishable that could represent a danger to the goal of achieving an eternal form, was removed from the body. For this reason, in the few representations of the embalming ritual, this phase is represented as a purifying bath. The corpse lay “on” (that is, in) a basin, and water was poured over it. The Egyptian word for such a basin is Sj, “lake,” and such a “lake” is mentioned repeatedly in the accompanying spells, some of which we shall cite in chapter 5... In Egyptian mortuary belief, Osiris was the prototype of every deceased individual. Everyone would become Osiris in death and be endowed with life by Isis... As Osiris, the deceased was fully vindicated against Seth, that is, death, in this lawsuit... The ordinary deceased was a follower of Osiris, was called Osiris and compared to him, and became a member of his following. He came into possession not only of life but also of personal status and recognition. He bore the name of the god, along with his own titles and his personal name, as well as the epithet “justified/vindicated.” He smote Seth, which meant that he had conquered death... Guilt, accusation, enmity, and so forth are treated as forms of impurity and decay—as, so to say, immaterial but harmful substances—that must be eliminated so as to transpose the deceased into a condition of purity that can withstand decay and dissolution. Vindication was moral mummification... He was vindicated against all accusations and absolved of any and all guilt, of any sin that could hinder his transition into the next life
Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism Late Antiquity, Early Judaism (Walter de Gruyter, 2011), David Hellholm, Tor Vegge, Oyvind Norderval, Christer Hellholm:
The ritual is said to have cleansed the ritual participants from the state of being that existed prior to the ritual. By means of the ritual they have acquired a state of purity categorically different from the one that characterised their previous state of being, i.e. they have been transferred from a state of impurity to a state of purity. It is certainly not coincidental that the cleansing metaphor precedes the next two metaphors which serve to make it clear to the recipients that the Corinthian Christ-believers have been initiated into a new form of being. They have not only been set apart from the world which is ultimately what the metaphor of sanctification implies but due to their justification in the name of the Lord Jesus and by means of the spirit of God they have also entered into a new legal state before God, i.e. they have been justified or acquitted of their previous guilt. In order to obtain justification, however, it is essential that the ritual participants have been transferred to a state in which they have been made ritually prepared for the acquisition of the justification. We do not need to enter into the discussion whether Paul in 1 Cor 6:11 is quoting from a pre-Pauline tradition or not. It suffices to note that in one of the earliest strands of what later became known as Christianity we find an amalgamation of elements pertaining to rituals of purification as well as rituals of initiation. Apparently, the two do not exclude each other... In fact I will argue that a ritual of initiation cannot be separated from the element of cleansing irrespective of whether that element is merely present in the form of a metaphorical formulation or as an independent, preparatory rite of purification... Although a rite of purification may not be part of the ritual of initiation per se, it does play a prominent role in the preparatory rites that precede Lucius’ initiation into the mysteries of Isis as recounted in the eleventh book of the Metamorphoses or The Golden Ass by Apuleius... It is a prevalent phenomenon frequently found in connection with rituals of initiation that a rite of cleansing or purification is somehow related to it.
A Journey Through the Beyond: The Development of the Concept of Duat and Related Cosmological Notions in Egyptian Funerary Literature (ISD LLC, Feb 1, 2022), Silvia Zago:
Moreover, at least some of these passages mentioning the lake(s) of the Duat associate these with the sun and the eastern horizon, near which such lakes may have been imagined to be located. In virtue of this connection, the Duat may be surmised to assume the connotation of a liminal, transitional place, where the sun and the king get cleansed before being ready to reappear on the horizon every morning and to rise in the sky. Ultimately, (ritual) purity was a necessary condition for being reborn, and for this reason it is often connected with the notion of the (initiatory) journey of the deceased through the Duat. The association between Osiris and water in a context of purification, renewal, and rebirth also had a long tradition in ancient Egyptian (funerary) literature...
In John, Lazarus is mourned by two sisters, is said to be "asleep" but will be awakened, and is bound with strips of cloth similar to a mummy. John 11:
Now a certain man was ill, Lazarus of Bethany, the village of Mary and her sister Martha. Mary was the one who anointed the Lord with perfume and wiped his feet with her hair; her brother Lazarus was ill... After saying this, he told them, “Our friend Lazarus has fallen asleep, but I am going there to awaken him.” The disciples said to him, “Lord, if he has fallen asleep, he will be all right.” Jesus, however, had been speaking about his death, but they thought that he was referring merely to sleep. Then Jesus told them plainly, “Lazarus is dead. For your sake I am glad I was not there, so that you may believe. But let us go to him.” Thomas, who was called the Twin, said to his fellow disciples, “Let us also go, that we may die with him.” When Jesus arrived, he found that Lazarus had already been in the tomb four days... he cried with a loud voice, “Lazarus, come out!” The dead man came out, his hands and feet bound with strips of cloth and his face wrapped in a cloth. Jesus said to them, “Unbind him, and let him go.”
In the Egyptian mortuary ritual there are two sisters who mourn Osiris, Osiris is said to be "asleep" but will be awakened, and he is wrapped as a mummy.
"The Baptismal Raising of Lazarus: A New Interpretation of John 11", Bernhard Lang, Novum Testamentum 58 (2016):
Though well hidden, the theme of baptism informs the whole story of the raising of Lazarus (John 11)... Ritually, the person being baptised is pushed into the realm of death, so that he can emerge to a new life... Unfortunately, our ancient sources on mystery religions tell us very little about how the “second birth” was ritually staged, for initiates were required to remain silent about it. Nevertheless, some hints found in ancient sources give an indication. The magic papyrus of Paris provides a good example. Around eleven o’clock in the morning and in the presence of the magician, the candidate is supposed to mount the roof of a house and spread out a piece of cloth. Naked he places himself upon it. His eyes are blindfolded, the entire body wrapped like a mummy... When this occurs, possibly in the form of a draught of air felt by the candidate, the latter stands up. He dons a white garment, burns incense and again utters a spell. The rites completed, he descends from the roof. Now he knows that he has acquired immortality. Similar rites and symbolic representations of death and resurrection can be found in all ancient mystery cults. “When the candidate of the mysteries of Isis applies for initiation, he chooses the ritual death in order to gain true life,” explains Reinhold Merkelbach. In fact, according to the ancients, each initiation ritual involves the death of the old and the birth of a new person; there are no exceptions. Early-Christian baptism divides the lives of those baptised in a sequence of three phases. In the first phase, the human being is enslaved to sin and the world. The second phase means death: the baptismal candidate is killed—symbolically, but not actually drowned by being forced under water. This “drowning” is the actual rite of baptism.
The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts (SBL Press; Second edition, 2015), James P. Allen:
Recitation 194: This Teti’s sister (Wadjet), the Lady of Pe, is the one who cried for him, and the two attendants, (Isis and Nephthys), who mourned Osiris have mourned him... Recitation 526: Raise yourself, clear away your dust, remove the shroud on your face. Loosen your ties...
The Mortuary Papyrus of Padikakem Walters Art Museum 551 (ISD LLC, 2011), Yekaterina Barbash:
Both compositions of papyrus W551 are mortuary in character and address Osiris or the deceased associated with him... Thus while section 1 contains earthly expressions of love and mourning for the deceased, section 2 deals with his transition to a new state of being in the hereafter. The sequence of the texts corresponds with the Egyptian perception of death, i.e., the deceased is gradually transformed after death, from this world to the sphere of the divine... The two goddesses, Isis and Nephthys, refer to death from the viewpoint of the living, uncovering their human emotions, as they recall their love for Osiris and grieve for him... the myth of Osiris, Horus, and Seth is evoked in spell 10 of PW 551:"The Great One (=Osiris) awakens, The Great One wakes up. Osiris raised himself on his side, the One who hates sleep (i.e., death), one who does not love weariness. The god stands, being powerful of his body. Horus has lifted him up, he's raised in Nedit."... In the s3hw as well as in other mortuary texts such as the BR, the transformation into an akh occurs by means of association of the deceased with the god Osiris and his incorporation into the sphere of the divine... Isis and Nephthys perform the widest range of tasks for the deceased Osiris, including purification, protection, and reassembling. At the same time, the two sisters act as they do in the lamentations, mourning and "glorifying" Osiris...
Adoration of the Ram: Five Hymns to Amun-Re from Hibis Temple (Yale Egyptological Seminar, 2006), David Klotz:
Rather, the true meaning goes back to the Pyramid Text originals, where the deceased Osiris/King is asked to “wake up” (viz. “resurrect himself ”), a common theme in mortuary spells. As Griffiths has noted, “death is really only a sleep, then, a phase of tiredness,” while in the same vein sleep was considered a death-like state. Thus the term rs (“awake”) could refer as easily to resurrection from death as to physical awakening from sleep, since the two states were conceptually synonymous.
The Search for God in Ancient Egypt (Cornell University Press, 2001), Jan Assmann:
Both spells proceed from the situation of the deceased lying on his bier, and both set it in the light of a mythic situation or an event in the divine realm: the discovery of Osiris, who has been slain by his brother Seth. The mythic explanation facilitates action; in spell 532, the action of the mourning women, who bewail the deceased as Isis and Nephthys, embalm and awaken him... Death is not an end, but the beginning of the funerary rites, and thus it is also the beginning of the story that explains these rites... The Osiris myth overcomes the experience of death by according this apparently catastrophic and hopeless situation an orientation in which it becomes meaningful to say to the deceased: "Arise!" "Stand up!" "Lift yourself!"—called out to the deceased as he lies stretched out, these exhortations constitute a common element shared by the two texts. They occur in a hundred other spells of the Pyramid Texts, and in later funerary literature, they are expanded into lengthy recitations and litanies that make a refrain of them, consistently addressing them to the deceased lying on the bier or to Osiris... We can summarize all these recitations, from the Pyramid Texts through the latest Osirian mysteries, as a genre of "raise-yourself spells."... Addressed to the deceased lying inert, the spells say, "Raise yourself!" on various mythic grounds. Their function is to raise the dead...
Death and Salvation in Ancient Egypt (Cornell University Press, 2005), Jan Assmann:
“Salvation” and “eternal life” are Christian concepts, and we might think that the Egyptian myth can all too easily be viewed through the lens of Christian tradition. Quite the contrary, in my opinion, Christian myth is itself thoroughly stamped by Egyptian tradition, by the myth of Isis and Osiris, which from the very beginning had to do with salvation and eternal life. It thus seems legitimate to me to reconstruct the Egyptian symbolism with the help of Christian concepts. As with Orpheus and Eurydice, the constellation of Isis and Osiris can also be compared with Mary and Jesus. The scene of the Pietà, in which Mary holds the corpse of the crucified Jesus on her lap and mourns, is a comparable depiction of the body centered intensity of female grief, in which Mary is assisted by Mary Magdalene, just as Isis is assisted by Nephthys.
Lamentation and mourning seem to be common in mystery cults. The mourning women seem to always play a role in anointing, purifying, and protecting the deceased's body.
Dionysos (Routledge, 2006), Richard Seaford:
There is considerable evidence (albeit much of it from late antiquity) for lamentation in mystery-cult, sometimes for the deity. The dismemberment of Dionysos was associated with – or perhaps in some way enacted in – his mystery-cult: we know this mainly from late texts, but there is evidence that the myth was known in the archaic and classical periods, and in view of our vase-painting of maenads attending the head (mask) of Dionysos in the liknon, it is possible that in the fifth century BC maenads in mystery-cult lamented the death of Dionysos. And given the importance of Dionysiac cult – and specifically of mystery-cult performed by the thiasos – in the genesis of Athenian tragedy, it is not unlikely that the centrality of lamentation for an individual in tragedy derives in part from maenadic lamentation...
Mummies & Magic: The Funerary Arts of Ancient Egypt (Dallas Museum of Art, 1993), Sue D'Auria and Peter Lacovara:
The renewal, that mysterious process that Kristensen’ called life from death, came about outside the created world in the unfathomable depth and darkness of the primeval waters (Nun) that surround this world. It is in that mysterious space that the deceased could live again. One sun-hymn reads: "How beautiful is thy shining forth in the horizon We are in renewal of life. We have entered into Nun He has renovated (us) to one who is young for the first time The (one) has been stripped off, the other put on." The last sentence has been interpreted to mean, “The old man is cast off and the new man is put on.“ It may also call to mind the mummy-bandages that are thrown off in the decisive moment of resurrection and the white garments that the glorified dead wear in depictions of the Underworld... The process begins with mummification: “the evening is set aside for you with oils and wrapping in the arms of the Weaving-Goddess"... Mummy-bindings had to be removed at the moment of resurrection... The thoroughness with which the Egyptians are wrapped makes understandable such special prayers as the one written on a coffin in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, directing the goddess Isis to free the mummy from its wrappings at the moment of resurrection: “Ho my mother Isis, come that you may remove the bindings which are on me".
So by entering the primordial waters the "old man is cast off and the new man is put on". This sounds very similar to how Paul describes baptism. The water purification during the mortuary ritual was associated with the primordial waters.
Death and the Afterlife in Ancient Egypt (British Museum Press, 2001), John H. Taylor:
The first stage was the purification of the corpse by washing... Cleansing of the corpse before mummification was doubtless a practical necessity, but the ritual aspects of the washing were perhaps of greater significance. According to Egyptian belief, water held important purifying and life giving qualities. Each dawn was a repetition of the original birth of the sun god from the watery chaos of Nun... Hence lustration came to be closely associated with rebirth...A ritual purification was necessary before the dead king could ascend to heaven in the manner of his divine model the sun god... In some of the Old Kingdom Pyramid Texts (5th to 6th Dynasties) the dead king is identified with Osiris, and thereby was believed to experience rebirth just as the murdered god had done.
The Egyptian Book of the Dead: The Book of Going Forth by Day edited by Eva Von Dassow:
Every evening the aged sun entered the underworld and travelled through it, immersed in Nun, only to emerge at dawn as Khepri, the newborn sun. Thus, the waters of Nun had a rejuvenating, baptismal quality essential to rebirth.
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2023.03.14 18:59 AzCanyonRafting Nearby Attractions Outside Las Vegas

Nearby Attractions Outside Las Vegas
Las Vegas is a great place where the fun never stops. However, the attractions that Nevada offers expand beyond the city limits. The state is blessed with picturesque landscapes, lots of nature and plenty of history.
If you are headed to the city and want to explore the nearby beauties, you are on the right page. Below, we are listing some of the best things to do outside Las Vegas.

The Best Attractions Near Las Vegas

How about a day trip away from the iconic Las Vegas Strip?
The landmarks below are ideal for day trips from Las Vegas or multi-day excursions. Most of them are in close proximity (at only a few hours away) from the city and can be easily reached by car. All of them are great for adventure seekers, hikers and nature enthusiasts. You can take a guided tour to explore each of them or visit on your own.

Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area
The Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area is another major landmark close to Las Vegas. It is located on the western edge of the city, making it a quick escape for many of the locals. Characterized by the red rock hills, the area also offers great hiking trails.
Driving enthusiasts should know that there is a one-way 13 mile scenic loop in the Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area, which is another thing you should put on your checklist when visiting this Las Vegas NV attraction. You can take the 13 mile drive by car or with an off-road vehicle.
Plenty of Las Vegas residents visit this area for hiking in the Red Rock Canyon and witnessing some spectacular views. You can visit the area in the spring and explore some of the scenic tours. Adventurers can choose from the numerous hiking, bicycling, horseback riding and off-road driving tours with motorized vehicles in the Red Rock Canyon, making most of the scenery and going for new kinds of adventures.
Toward the southern end of this natural landmark, you can reach the Spring Mountain Ranch State Park and the Bonnie Springs Ranch which was sold in 2019 and closed to the public. The latter was also known for its replica of a western ghost town.

Grand Canyon
The Grand Canyon National Conservation Area is another buzzing spot close to Las Vegas and one of the popular places to visit. This attraction is located in Arizona and about 130 miles from the heart of Las Vegas, though the North Rim and South Rim are located over 270 miles from the Las Vegas Strip.
According to scientists, the Grand Canyon National Park formed 5 to 6 million years ago when the river began to cut its channel through layers or rock. At the time, humans have inhabited the area – in fact, the first Europeans to reach the Grand Canyon were the Spaniards in the 1540s. Since 1893, the Grand Canyon is protected as a forest reserve. In 1919, it became an official United States National Park.
Today, visitors go to the Grand Canyon to trace its geologic history on the Trail of Time, an interesting exhibit on the park's South Rim. The spectacular viewpoints in the Grand Canyon have also made the destination popular for adventurers and thrill seekers.
With more than five million visitors from all over the globe visiting the Grand Canyon each year, there are plenty of new developments. One of them is the Grand Canyon Skywalk, which is a walkway with a glass floor that hangs over a western section of the Grand Canyon. All in all, one of the most famous and popular destinations close to Las Vegas.

Death Valley National State Park
Death Valley is located in California but can be visited on a day trip from Las Vegas. Surrounded by wilderness, the Death Valley National Park is the largest national park in the United States (besides Alaska) and an International Biosphere Reserve.
Despite its morbid name, the Death Valley National Park is a land of extremes with plenty of contrasts. You can notice towering peaks frosted with winter snow, rare rainstorms, and tons of wildflowers. No wonder why it is a famous Las Vegas attraction.
You will be surprised to see dunes, fields of wildflowers, lakes and plenty of different colors. The sights don't require long walks, and some of the best highlights are Badwater Basin, the moving rocks at Race Track, the rolling hills at Zabriskie Point, and the viewpoint from Dante's View. Perfect for a road trip!

Valley Of Fire
Because of this stunning location, Nevada is sometimes called "the Valley of Fire state." A trip from Las Vegas to the Valley of Fire State Park guarantees a lot of excitement, especially if you are into history and want to explore old signs carved on massive red rock formations in the Mojave Desert.
The Valley of Fire State Park is a great place for hiking, and a popular destination of Las Vegas residents and people living in Nevada. The trails here are short but lead you to some great sceneries. The area stretches around more than 42,000 acres of haunting sandstone creations which were formed by sand dunes that settled and solidified. The first human signs here date back to approximately 3,000 years ago.
From red rock formations to petroglyphs, the Valley Of Fire State Park is an interesting archeological spot. There are multiple opportunities to see wildlife, camp, and enjoy the scenery out in the open. To reach this magnificent landmark, you should take Interstate 15 north from the city and drive for about an hour.

Zion National Park
The Zion National Park is hosting 2.5 million visitors per year, many of which are coming from Las Vegas. Located in SouthWestern Utah, it is the state's oldest and most visited national park that is located 160 miles from the city. The best driving route to take is Interstate 16, which offers some beautiful sights and won't take more than 2.5 hours.
The Zion National Park starts with the Zyon Canyon as the main attraction at the south end, exhibiting scenic rock formations, monolith structures and eroded canyon walls cut by the Virgin River. The 2,200 foot Great White Throne is another great highlight in the Zion National Park and the most popular landmark in the area. Others include the Court of the Patriarchs, Angel's Landing and the Watchman, all of which are interesting sights.
Other notable places to visit in this area are the hiking trails which are positioned all around the park – there are even areas that are so narrow so that hikers could nearly touch both sides of the canyon with their hands.

Mount Charleston
The town of Mount Charleston offers a nice change of scene and climate from the Sin City, which is why even locals consider it for a quick adventure. Positioned at 7,000 feet, it is an easy hour's drive from Las Vegas.
What looks like a cool escape in the summer can easily transform to a snowy wonderland in the winter. Every season is unique in Mount Charleston, and this place is unlike any desert nearby. No wonder why it is among the favorite national parks for locals.
The mountainous region is definitely a change compared to the desert ambiance near the city. Tall pines and fabulous trails for hiking are among the top-rated activities, whether you are looking for a refreshing break from the smoke filled casinos or an active weekend surrounded by nature. You can even spend a night in a hotel and enjoy the fresh air.
Over 25 endemic plant and animal species live in the "sky island" of Mount Charleston, and the scenery changes in different elevations. You can also take a guided tour to explore different trees, wildflowers, and oases.
There are trails for all skill levels, whether you want to hike, camp, climb cycle or drive. The city also offers fun to horseback riders who can choose from a variety of settings and indulge in the beauties of the Spring Mountains.

Lake Mead National Recreation Area
Lake Mead is easily on the list of best day trips from Las Vegas and the largest reservoir in the country created by the construction of the Hoover Dam. Lake Mead offers 750 miles of shoreline, which is plenty for many looking for relaxation.
Plenty of natural activities like swimming, boating, hiking, camping and fishing are all possible in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Ideal for a road trip from Sin City, this playground is located in America's First National Recreation Area that spreads across 1.5 million acres of scenic hills, canyons, valleys and lakes (Lake Mead and Lake Mohave).
Expect to see hills that look like purple majesties, breathe in fresh air and enjoy a day at the beach. When at Lake Mead, you can also take a boat out from Hemenway Harbor and nestle into a cove or take a cruise to the Hoover Dam. Beach enthusiasts should visit Boulder Beach for a lazy day or Callville Bay for water sports and activities.
The Lake Mead National Recreation Area is easily one of the best spots nearby Las Vegas, Nevada for visitors who want to get away from the city and relax looking at or swimming in the blue waters surrounded by colorful desert.

Colorado River Rafting
The Colorado River is flowing near Las Vegas into the Gulf of California. It is a main source of freshwater and an attraction in many different areas of the country. Located close to the city of Las Vegas near Lake Mead, it offers the picturesque Black Canyon area where you can indulge in rafting tours and enjoy white water rafting activities under the dam.
One of the most scenic viewpoints in these rafting tours is going below the Hoover Dam bridge and exploring the incredible Black Canyon and all of the stone-made hills nearby. Going under the dam in a raft is a breathtaking experience you will remember.

Bryce Canyon National Park

Unlike the Grand Canyon and Red Rock Canyon, the Bryce Canyon located in Utah is not a single canyon but a series of bowls carved into the edge of a high mountain. It is also a landmark where you can explore otherworldly sculptures that have been there for millions of years. This place is a main tourist attraction in the state and a spot where you can see natural stone sculptures.
The dead standing trees provide a lot of habitat – more than 85 species of North American birds build their nests in them. Nature enthusiasts can also spot mammals, lizards, insects and many other species that make the Bryce Canyon their home.
Utah's Bryce Canyon National Park is full of red-orange-pink amphitheaters that date back to 70 million years ago. Wind, water, and time eroded these sandstone cliffs into breathtaking characters that look almost intentional, yet perfectly surreal.

Boulder City
Boulder city is a town that is located 26 miles (45 minutes by car) southeast from Las Vegas. Known for the iconic Hoover Dam and the Boulder Dam Museum, it also has a power plant. It is also a place where you can hike – the Historic Railroad Trail is among the favorites for hikers.
Boulder City's downtown is not as big or fast-paced as Las Vegas' but is still a major landmark. The town has rich railroad history and offers a less frenetic, but still lively setting. The best times for visiting it are the spring and fall seasons, mostly because of the heat of the summer which can sometimes reach 100-degree-plus temperatures.
The famous Hoover Dam is part of the history of this town, and Boulder City's Boulder Dam Museum in downtown tells the story of its origin. You can expect stunning views and plenty of history when visiting this place. As the museum's website says, the Hoover Dam has a remote location and difficult terrain, which is why a town had to be built to house the construction companies and their workers. Because of these two landmarks, the city is often called Boulder Dam, too.
Hiking and cycling are also welcome in this city. You can take the 3.7 mile tour route and explore the tunnels built along with the Hoover Dam that burrow through the rugged volcanic rocks. The trail is rated easy and is among Nevada's most spectacular hikes. You can also see the bighorn sheep in the Hemenway Valley Park, visit Lake Mead (only 15 minutes away), or go for a drink in the downtown. Other tours of the Dam's neighboring power plant are offered, too.

Summary Of Nearby Las Vegas Activities

  • For nature enthusiasts: Lake Mead, Mt. Charleston, Red Rock , Valley Of Fire, Death Valley National Park
  • For cycling enthusiasts: Red Rock Scenic Loop, River Mountains Loop Trail, Pittman Wash Trail
  • For hikers: Lake Mead, Grand Canyon, Mt. Charleston
  • For off-road driving enthusiasts: Valley Of Fire, Mojave, Red Rock Canyon
  • For campers: Red Rock Canyon, Mt. Charleston, Lake Mead National Recreation Area
  • For history enthusiasts: Hoover Dam, Valley Of Fire, Mt. Charleston, Grand Canyon, Bryce Canyon
  • For whitewater rafting: Colorado River

Interested In These Trips From Las Vegas?

Now is the best time to book a guided tour or just pick one of these locations and start your adventure. From the beauties of the popular Grand Canyon where you can enjoy breathtaking views to the trails at Mount Charleston, there are too many activities that can give you the recharge you deserve after a wild night in Las Vegas.
If you are an outdoor enthusiast who appreciates seeing more than just a hotel room and a full casino, you will absolutely love these attractions. All of the national parks, mountains, scenic viewpoints and other landmarks that are only a few hours away from the city and perfect for a day trip.
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2023.03.13 15:19 STLhistoryBuff Weekly Events Thread 3/13/23 - 3/19/23

Please, feel free to add any events below! Check out the Visitor's Guide for more things to do around town!
Looking to meet up with people? Check out Meetup St. Louis.

Be sure to continue scrolling past the Weekly Events for Trivia Nights, Live Music, Sporting Events, Local Comedy, and more!

St. Patrick's Day Events

Weekly Events

Sporting Events This Week Attractions Around the Area Comedy This Week
St. Louis Cardinals schedule Anheuser-Busch Brewery Funny Bone Comedy Club
St. Louis Blues schedule City Museum Helium Comedy Club
St. Louis City SC schedule Gateway Arch The Improv Shop
St. Louis Battlehawks schedule Missouri History Museum
St. Louis Billikens schedule National Blues Museum
Gateway Grizzlies schedule St. Louis Aquarium
Gateway Motorsports Park St. Louis Art Museum
St. Louis Ambush schedule St. Louis Science Center
St. Louis Zoo

Trivia Nights
Location Date/Time More Information
Bar K Tuesdays at 7:00 pm
City Foundry Thursdays 7:00 pm - 9:00 pm
Joey B's on the Hill Mondays 8:30 pm - 10:30 pm Trivia Details
Nick's Pub Mondays
Felix's Pizza Pub Tuesdays at 8:00 pm Trivia Details
Schlafly Brewpubs (Any Location) Tuesdays 7:00 pm - 9:00 pm Trivia Details
Rockwell Beer Co Tuesdays Trivia Details (Reservations required)
The Mack Tuesdays at 8:00 pm Trivia Details
The Pat Connolly Tavern Wednesdays at 7:00 pm
The Post Wednesdays 8:00 pm - 10:00 pm Trivia Details
Pieces Board Game Bar & Cafe Wednesdays Trivia Details
HandleBar Thursdays at 7:00 pm - 9:00 pm Trivia Details
Steve's Hot Dogs Tuesdays 7:30 pm - 9:30 pm Trivia Details

Live Music This Week
Music Venues Live Music Around Town
Blueberry Hill Duck Room 1860 Saloon
Chesterfield Amphitheater BB's Jazz, Blues & Soups
Delmar Hall Broadway Oyster Bar
Enterprise Center City Foundry
The Fabulous Fox Theatre Gallery Pub
The Factory Game 6 Honky Tonk
Hollywood Casino Amphitheatre Gaslight Lounge
Off Broadway The Heavy Anchor
Old Rock House Jazz St. Louis
The Pageant Joe's Cafe
Red Flag The Lot on the Landing
St. Louis Music Park McGurk's
St. Louis Symphony Concert Calendar SoFar St. Louis Secret performances around town
Stifel Theatre Venice Cafe
Yaquis on Cherokee

Recurring Outdoor Activities
Big Muddy Adventures – STL Riverfront Adventure Big Muddy Adventures was established in 2002. They are the first professional outfitteguiding company providing access to the wild wonders of the Middle Mississippi and Lower Missouri Rivers.
Gateway Arch Events There are a variety of things to do along the Mississippi River.
Hidden Valley Ski Resort Ziplining, scenic chairlift rides, and hiking trails opened during the summer. Skiing, snowboarding during the winter.
submitted by STLhistoryBuff to StLouis [link] [comments]

2023.03.11 22:30 SeniorFlyingMango Beltways

So I tried looking up these online but found vague information about why the following projects were scrapped:

  1. The Belt Expressway that was supposed to run from Blasdell and Niagara Falls but only LaSalle and Milestrip Expressways were only constructed for the project.

  1. The Lake Ontario State Parkway was supposed to connect to the Niagara Scenic Parkway and both were obviously built but never finished.

  1. The I-990 which was supposed to end near the City of Lockport but they stopped at Millersport.

  1. Also, why does it look like they were going to extend the 219 but you have to get off at Peters Road.

Does anybody know the reasons why these projects were never fully built, was it due to lack of money even though the projects were state-funded and the I-990 a federal project?
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2023.03.10 17:39 Selgowiros2 St. Patrick, a false genocide and Paganism in Ireland.

Each year on March 17th, the internet is treated with narratives involving the non-canonical saint Patrick. These range from a perspective of civilizing the Irish in a Catholic context, to a contemporary Pagan one of memorializing a lost indigenous culture in Ireland. Both often contain flawed thinking but the contemporary Pagan side more than not tends to perpetuate ideas that require skewing of data to the point of non-sense.
Here are myths we've seen and points to refute them.
Why ever this 'point' is brought up in St. Patrick genocide arguments is beyond me, but here it is anyway. This actually came from author Enda Barth in the 1970s. Edna Barth was born in 1900 in Keokuk, Iowa. She worked as a librarian, a teacher, and an editor of books for young people before becoming the author. She died in 1981. Maewyn Succat, on Edna’s part, is a misreading of translated 7th Century CE hagiographical attempts to apply metaphorical names to Patrick.
Bishop Tírechán’s writings: “I have found four names for Patrick written in a book in the hands of Ultán, bishop of Connor: the saint (was named) Magonus, that is: famous, Succetus, that is: god of war; Patricius, that is: father of the citizens; Cothirthiacus, because he served four houses of druids; and one of them, by name Miliuc moccu Bóin, a druid, bought him, and he served him for seven years in all submission and in work of all kinds, and he made him a swineherd in the mountain valleys.”
Muirchú moccu Machtheni’s text: “Patrick son of Calfornius had four names: Sochet when he was born, Cothriche when he was a slave, Mauonius when he studied, Patrick when he was consecrated.”
The passage in question from Barth's own Shamrock's, Harps, Shillelaghs.
Three centuries before St. Patrick's time, the Roman Empire had conquered Britain. When Patrick was a boy, many of the people were Christians, living under Roman rule. The Roman Catholic religion, Roman customs, and Roman names all prevailed. The official language was Latin. Patrick's father was an official who worked for the Roman government. He was known by the Roman name Calpurnius. The family's name was English name was Succat, meaning clever in war. Patrick's first name was Maewyn. In his writing, he spoke of himself as patricius, meaning well-born in Latin. Patrick is the English form of this word. During Patrick's boyhood, the Roman Empire was near collapse and too weak to defend it's holdings in distant lands. Britain became an easy prey for raiders, including those who crossed the Irish sea from the land the Romans called Juverna. In English this word was Hibernia.
Obviously, Barth's text has some incredibly glaring issues that range from assuming English language was being applied here, to the misapplication of hagiographical data in a creative fashion. I'll also say that it seems cruel to not take Patricius at his word when he says in the first portion of his own Confessio (5th CE, the oldest document on him and an autobiography of sorts) "Ego Patricius".
The claim that Saint Patrick had banished all of the snakes and venomous creatures from Ireland was first recorded much later and is most likely lifted from from the life story of St. Hilaire who lived and died in the 4th CE (from the Miracles of Hilary by Venantius Fortunatus, 6th CE), who was said to have evicted the snakes on the Island of Gallinara (see (Ogden, D. (2013) “The Birth of The Christian Dragon,” in Drakōn Dragon Myth and serpent cult in the greek and Roman Worlds. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 397 and p. 401-402.)
However, before Patrick enters the narrative, we have Bede in his Ecclesiastical History of the English People (completed 731 CE) telling us that no reptiles live in Ireland.
Ireland, in breadth, and for wholesomeness and serenity of climate, far surpasses Britain; for the snow scarcely ever lies there above three days: no man makes hay in the summer for winter's provision, or builds stables for his beasts of burden. No reptiles are found there, and no snake can live there; for, though often carried thither out of Britain, as soon as the ship comes near the shore, and the scent of the air reaches them, they die. On the contrary, almost all things in the island are good against poison. In short, we have known that when some persons have been bitten by serpents, the scrapings of leaves of books that were brought out of Ireland, being put into water, and given them to drink, have immediately expelled the spreading poison, and assuaged the swelling.
The theme of 'harmful animal' removal is also naturally occurring in stories involving saints in Ireland according to Gerald of Wales (late 12th CE). This is the first mention of Patrick removing snakes, but notedly other harmful animals, from Ireland.
From the History and Topography of Ireland:
Of all kids of reptiles only those that are not harmful are found in Ireland. It has no poisonous reptiles. It has no serpents or snakes, toads or frogs, tortoises or scorpions. It has no dragons, It has, however, spiders, leeches and lizards – but they are entirely harmless. Some indulge in the pleasant conjecture that Saint Patrick and other saints of the land purged the island of all harmful animals. But it is more probable that from the earliest times, and long before the laying of the foundations of the Faith, the island was naturally without these as well as other things.
While these certainly come from a pro-English viewpoint, and Gerald of Wales may have been attempting to undermine any 'holiness' that Ireland may have claimed, these are the earliest instances recorded with snakes and Ireland. And they are clearly not a cryptic metaphor but actually snakes. When we ponder further, Christian ethnographies often don't pull punches in regards to it's colonial efforts, so why would the later Christian Irish decide utilize metaphor mid-effort when the damage was done and victory seemingly achieved?
We've also seen fallacious statements such as "Snakes were never in Ireland, therefore, they must be a metaphor". This is a ghoulish wishful thinking when the truth is demonstrable; Snakes were just meant to be snakes.

We've already seen how snakes cannot be a metaphor for the indigenous religion of Ireland, now we come to the main myth of the saint and holiday for contemporary Pagans. To this day, there is no archeological evidence that demonstrates this 'genocide' is a possibility. There is also no prescribed method in hagiographical accounts or folk legends (to my knowledge at the least) of how he did it, such as immolation, or beheading or hanging etc.
To fully debunk this myth, we must look at time and circumstances. Patrick lived and died in the 5th CE, with the oldest documentation in regards to him being his autobiographical account, his Confessio. We have two passages that mention baptisms on mass: 14:
In the knowledge of this faith in the Trinity, and without letting the dangers prevent it, it is right to make known the gift of God and his eternal consolation. It is right to spread abroad the name of God faithfully and without fear, so that even after my death I may leave something of value to the many thousands of my brothers and sisters – the children whom I baptised in the Lord.
Perhaps, however, when I baptised so many thousands of people, did I hope to receive even the smallest payment? If so, tell me, and I will return it to you. Or when the Lord ordained clerics everywhere through my poor efforts, and I gave this service to them for free, if I asked them to pay even for the cost of my shoes – tell it against me, and I will return it to you and more.
Patrick may have been exaggerating the numbers, which is evidenced by this passage then: 48:
You all know, and God knows, how I have lived among you since my youth, in true faith and in sincerity of heart. Towards the pagan people too among whom I live, I have lived in good faith, and will continue to do so. God knows that I have not been devious with even one of them, nor do I think of doing so, for the sake of God and his church. I would not want to arouse persecution of them and of all of us; nor would I want that the Lord’s name should be blasphemed on account of me; since it is written: “Woe to the one through whom the name of the Lord is blasphemed.”
This passage not only shows that he is at the least sympathetic towards the indigenous culture in some regards, he's also afraid to make waves due to Christianity's weak foot hold in Ireland at the time. This next passage however demonstrates personal and professional relationships that Patrick had with Pagan kings and their children.
At times I gave gifts to kings, over and above what I paid to their sons who travelled with me. Despite this, they took me and my companions prisoner, and very much wanted to kill me, but the time had not yet come. They stole everything they found in our possession, and they bound me in iron. On the fourteenth day, the Lord set me free from their power; all our possessions were returned to us for God’s sake, and for the sake of the close friendship we had had previously.
We see in his own words that he's non-violent but also cautious in his dealings, which contradict his later depictions. These examples show us that hagiographies post-Patrick can only be seen as viewpoint of him at the time of production, and not historical accounts to be trusted entirely, if at all. It is certainly interesting at how his character mutates through time, but because of this, later hagiographical accounts can now be put aside.
To re-state, Patrick died in 457 CE. We should perhaps look at High King Muirchertach Mac Muiredaig, who died in 534 CE. In Aided Muirchertaig Meic Erca (the Death of Muirchertaig Meic Erca, from 12th Century):
The king awoke and ordered his vision to be taken to his foster-brother Dub Da Rinn son of the druid Saignen, and Dub Da Rinn gave him the meaning of it thus: “This is the ship wherein thou hast been, to wit, the ship of thy princedom on the sea of life, and thou steering it. This is the ship that foundered, and thy life is to come to an end. This is the taloned griffin that has carried thee into her nest, to wit, the woman that is in thy company, to make thee intoxicated, and to bring thee with her into her bed, and to detain thee in the house of Cletech so that it will burn over thee. Now the griffin that fell with thee is the woman who will die by reason of thee. This then is the significance of that vision.”
Here we see that Muirchertach has associations with druids in court. This is produced in the same century as Gerald of Wales' account of snakes not being in Ireland and driven out by Patrick, but takes place 77 years post-Patrick.
We now come to the final and most important nail in the coffin of this debunking, which come from A guide to Early Irish Law by Fergus Kelly pp.60 :
According to the 6th century First Synod of Saint Patrick, oaths were sworn in his (Druids) presence. By the time of the law-texts (7th-8th centuries) it is clear that the advance of Christianity had reduced his position to that of sorcerer or witch-doctor. He is discriminated against in law: Bretha Crolige insists that the druid (along with the satirist and brigand) is entitled to sick-maintenance only at the level of Maire no matter how great his rank, privilege or other rights. However, he retains enough influence to secure inclusion among the doernemeds of Uraicecht Becc. It is difficult to make any definite statement about the druids' role in society during our period. No records survive from them and others' accounts of their activities may be based on ignorance or prejudice. Their magic spells were certainly feared: an 8th century hymn asks God for protection from the spells of women, blacksmiths and druids.
Kelly, brings up a few points; Druids, despite being heavily demoted in legislation, still existed 2-3 centuries post Patrick. The second is that by the 8th, we see a harder erosion and discrimination against indigenous religion in Ireland.
If Patrick committed a genocide, how is it that the 6th (a century later than Patrick) century Synod records their existence still, and how is that they retain a (demoted) position in court? The answer is clear. He did NOT commit such an act.
Regardless of one's opinion on Patrick and his efforts, we see these points debunked and can perhaps shift the topic from a wildly vague and false tragedy attributed to a folk saint to the unfortunate erosion through propaganda and legislation efforts. We should however consider discussing these topics away from a holiday meant to celebrate the Irish and the oppression their culture faced from the English.
TLDR: No, Patrick didn't mass murder an entire indigenous Irish population and this holiday isn't for pagans to co-opt trauma. It's to say "Fuck you" to the English and to celebrate the Irish.
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2023.03.07 23:09 TouchTheCathyl Bill Clinton was Not a Realist


I thoroughly enjoyed the recent video explaining Realism, it did an excellent job codifying a lot of tropes of realist thought without talking in a circular fashion as I find other attempts to explain realism do. However I do want to address a criticism that I think comes not from factual error but merely perspective. Kraut is not an American, and that does give him some outside objectivity in understanding American politics but it also means he may misunderstand some subtleties.
The idea that Bill Clinton was a realist seems to be supported by the statement that the Clintons looked up to Henry Kissinger, a talking point I heard quite frequently during the 2016 campaign, especially in the New York Times, but which lacked a ton of context. The reason for this was that outlets like the Times saw Clinton's win as forgone and so were preparing themselves to be liberal critics of the Clinton administration, and foreign policy is easily Hillary Clinton's most enduring political legacy as she was Secretary of State under president Obama and given significant deference, which made it the most obvious avenue for scrutiny, and I suspect this is where this talking point grew from.
That's actually a point I want to bring up, the office of Secretary of State is a very powerful one in the United States, and exactly how powerful varies by the President. Some presidents appoint a close ally and give them clear orders of their vision, other presidents appoint a scholar they respect and rubber stamp their decisions. It can be just as critical to define phases of American foreign policy by the State Secretary as by the President. Kissinger himself was the architect of Nixon's policy as his State Secretary. Including our missing context: Henry Kissinger presided over the Yom Kippur War and the China Visit.

The Yom Kippur War

In 1973 a coalition of Panarabists made one last attempt to save their arab nationalist ideology (remember the Turkey videos?) by removing the Jewish state, the massive flaw in their vision. They invaded Israel during the Yom Kippur festivities, expecting the army to be busy celebrating. However despite the element of surprise and early victories, superior organization and equipment by the Israeli Defense Force countered and routed the Panarab offensive. After this conflict, the Arab states would slowly begin to accept Israel is here to stay as it became clear they would not be able to annex it after three failed attempts. That the current state of the Israeli Palestinian conflict is that the Israeli state is secure and the Palestinian state isn't is a product of the peace protocols following the Six Day and Yom Kippur wars. Before then, neither state was secure.
During the negotiations the US was faced with a challenge in that the belligerents could not engage in negotiations as negotiating with Israeli diplomats would implicitly mean recognizing Israel as a state, something which the armed forces in some of the belligerent nations had couped their leaders before in the past. Not to mention admitting defeat in the war was itself a coup risk. As a consequence of transitioning away from a world of empires and towards a world of Nation States, as well as the rise of ideological dictatorships, this was an increasingly common problem in the 20th century and continues today: States rarely ever voluntarily cede territory. It's just never in the self interest of a state to do so. So in an age where the moral right of a state to own territory is defined by national fraternity, the state must justify its borders or its territorial ambitions by asserting that they line up generally to the boundaries of a nation. This means other national identities must be either incorporated, placated, removed, or for this purpose, denied. You cannot deny a nationality's right to self determination, but you can deny that it is a nationality. You see this in Putin claiming Ukrainians are an integral part of the Russian nationality, or more pertinently the PanArabists refusing to acknowledge the existence of the Jewish state, essentially pretending that it's not there, in order to justify annexing it. Nationalistic ideologies are often deliberately delusional, and do not take kindly to being confronted with reality, as ideological compliance is necessary to maintain order, and the levers of power like the military or court will be staffed with true believers who will use their power to depose a heathen. Thus ideological dictatorships committed to national supremacy cannot ever admit to failure of the allegedly supreme nationality or ideology, such as in a war. To get around this and negotiate peace, Kissinger repeated a process of using third party mediators many times over that is still used today when conducting negotiations between belligerents that for whatever reason cannot contact each other directly, nicknamed Shuttle Diplomacy as it often involves frequent short range flights to third neutral countries. This method of conducting diplomacy is essential for allowing dialogue to be had in pretty much any modern ethnic conflict where there's too much national pride at stake for the negotiating parties to openly engage in negotiations, and in Kissinger's time, ended the Yom Kippur War and began one of the phases of peace negotiations that culminated in the Oslo Accords. Without Kissinger, there were no Oslo Accords, which were easily Clinton's proudest foreign policy legacy.


The decision to make a diplomatic mission to the People's Republic of China set in motion the uplifting of a fifth of the global population from Absolute Poverty by allowing China access to foreign export markets to build a modern industrial base with. And during the Clinton administration, there was still hope that a growing middle class would demand more political say to protect their wealth and force the Party to devolve more power. Francis Fukuyama believes this will still happen eventually. I do recall a video where Kraut dismisses this belief as having been naive, that revolutions are usually conducted an underclass with nothing to lose by overthrowing the state, but the Arab Spring has been exactly this and ended rather definitively in failure. The truth is that nobody knows how to deliberately and consistently concoct the conditions to create a democratic revolution in an undemocratic state and we're kind of just guessing, and the Middle Class Reform theory was very powerful in the 90s end-of-history zeitgeist as it was more or less what was believed to have caused the democratization of South Korea at the same time. And with the decision to open China, even if it never democratizes, has had a profound positive impact on life for the average person in the most populous country on earth. Those are real people whose lives were improved. It may be easy to forget those consequences, especially when we take for granted the industrial powerhouse that China looks like today, and have begun to regret giving the Chinese state access to the kind of wealth and legitimacy to engage in grotesque violations of human rights and threats of aggression against democratic states, all for its nationalsitic ideology.
That is somewhat poor comfort so far, I know it seems like a stretch, but I want to establish first that there are two possible explanations for why the Clintons acknowledge Kissinger, them being amoral realists seeking the securing of an American influence sphere, and them being pragmatic idealists admitting that without some of Kissinger's actions some of their flagship accomplishments wouldn't have been possible, and I intend to eliminate the former by citing President Clinton's own words and actions.

Ukaine, Russia, and Madeleine Albright

"When I first became president, I said that I would support Russian President Boris Yeltsin in his efforts to build a good economy and a functioning democracy after the dissolution of the Soviet Union—but I would also support an expansion of NATO to include former Warsaw Pact members and post-Soviet states. My policy was to work for the best while preparing for the worst. I was worried not about a Russian return to communism, but about a return to ultranationalism, replacing democracy and cooperation with aspirations to empire, like Peter the Great and Catherine the Great. I didn’t believe Yeltsin would do that, but who knew what would come after him?"
When the current Russian offensive in Ukraine started, a propaganda point Russia used to claim victimhood was that NATO had unfairly encroached upon their sphere of influence and surrounded them, intending to reduce Russia to a poker chip to use the metaphor from the video. Essentially, Putin accused Bill Clinton and George W. Bush of violating realist principles against Russia.
Bill Clinton immediately wrote a brief essay1 first a challenge to this point by illustrating his actual vision for a post cold war Russia, and second an obituary to his State Secretary and architect of his vision and the NATO expansion, Madeleine Albright.
Marie Jana Körbelová was born in Prague in 1937. In 1948 at the age of 11 her family fled the rapidly descending Iron Curtain for the United States, where from a young age she watched the Soviet Union cruelly repress her home and people and the Americans feel largely powerless or disinterested in stopping it. She studied international relations and wrote her dissertation on the Prague Spring of 1968, becoming the premier expert in Washington on the fundamental nature of the Warsaw Pact as an extractive relationship between a Russian imperial core and Eastern European colonies, and advocate for the freedom of Eastern Europe from the Soviet Empire. When Yugoslavia collapsed, Albright was one of the loudest lobbyists in Washington supporting NATO intervention in the former Yugoslav states to enforce peace.
Bill Clinton knew all of this when he appointed her. It is in fact exactly why he appointed her. Bill Clinton's understanding of Russia was deeply tied to his understanding of Russian history as having not developed the rule of law as Western Europe did due to mongol influence and isolation from the forces that created rule of law in Western Europe. In fact, these very ideas were discussed in Kraut's video on the Origins of Russian Authoritarianism. Bill Clinton believed that the end of the Soviet Union was Russia's chance to finally end Russian Lawlessness, and sought to create a system of incentives to allow Russia to integrate with Western Europe if it succeeded in doing so, while also preparing to deter aggression should Russia reject the hand he offered. This was the purpose of the NATO expansion, it may have violated Russia's supposed sphere of influence but he didn't care. Yes, expanding NATO is against realism. Bill Clinton is not a realist, he did it because he genuinely cared about the futures of the former Warsaw Pact states. It created insurance against the rise of a figure like Putin but also established the precedent that former NATO enemies can join if they change sufficiently. States like Russia, or Ukraine. What we are seeing in Ukraine, is what Clinton wanted for Russia, a debate between western and eastern outlooks won by the western faction seeking greater ties to NATO and the EU and better systems of democracy and law. Not poker chips to be used by the United States against Russia or China, but as nations of free minded people who wish to write their own destinies. Not a nation building project where the US would attempt to create democracy in Russia from the end of a bayonet. Ukraine has broken the yoke of Russian Lawlessness all on their own, and this war has only solidified the Ukrainian state and identity as something not Russian, and shown starkly the two different paths that opened after the end of the Soviet Union. Russia took one road and is becoming a hermit state, Ukraine took another and in her finest hour is awash in support and solidarity from the west.
Madeleine Albright, forgive the metaphor, but may well be the closest thing we had in real life to Princess Leia, if Ronald Reagan saw the Soviets as the Empire, then Albright was a diplomat who watched her home destroyed and so committed to dismantling the empire responsible through politics, diplomacy, and if necessary, war. She was so beloved as a liberator that Vaclav Havel wanted to name her as his successor to lead his party, which she declined believing she would serve Czechia better as a lobbyist in Washington. And she was in my view the greatest diplomat who has ever lived. She brought peace to the Balkans, something Bismarck and Metternich could not even conceive of. As Secretary of State she began the process of expanding NATO that was completed under George W Bush and his State Secretary Condoleeza Rice, defied 'vietnam syndrome' following the failure of the Somalia crisis, and used the might of the most powerful empire in history to protect millions of innocents in eastern europe from harm for generations to come and offer an olive branch with one hand to her former oppressors while preparing for them to refuse it with the other. Each day this war continues vindicates her decision to expand NATO and interfere in the Balkans. And it is a great disservice to her legacy to call her or the president she advised a realist. Albright's foreign policy was motivated first and foremost by the idea that American power ought to be used to protect the innocent, famously chastising Colin Powell, yes that Colin Powell, for being too bearish and cautious about interfering in the post-yugoslav conflicts. Bill Clinton's involvement in stopping the Sbrenica Genocide is something Kraut has acknowledged in a video shaming Noam Chomsky for denying it, and was motivated entirely by idealism. A desire to put an end to the centuries of conflict that have plagued southeastern europe since the Romans. (His recalcitrance was mostly due to a combination of fearing a repeat of the recent humiliation in Somalia, and suffering a sex scandal at home.) Hillary Clinton shared this view. As did Albright.

Hillary Clinton

Hillary Clinton would get her turn to shape foreign policy in some capacity as Obama's state secretary from 2009-2013, during which many of the decisions Kraut identified as idealistic bordering on neoconservative were enacted such as the Libya intervention2 , and she was in favor of endorsing the Arab Spring3 . More pertinently, after retiring in 2013 she also acknowledged that the 2014 invasion of Crimea was a warning that Russia would not stop and would not accept an independent and westernizing Ukraine4,5, a view that made her an enemy of Russian interests when she made a bid for the presidency in 2016. There is a reason why Russian propaganda campaigns clearly disfavored Clinton. And Russia was not the only party that despised Clinton's candidacy. Hillary Clinton was a supporter of the Trans Pacific Partnership, a long-negotiated plan to counterbalance China by improving economic ties with the countries surrounding it, creating a trade bloc of nations that would together be stronger against attempts by an increasingly authoritarian China to bully them. This shift reflected both recognition that China was becoming a threat to the American order despite earlier optimism, and it reflected the very same return to the Reagan-Bush encirclement strategy that Kraut has acknowledged President Biden for reviving. This was hated by american nationalists though as a corporate plot to take over the governments of the signatories, and when Donald Trump came to power and scrapped it, the Chinese party leadership breathed a sigh of relief.
These are not the actions of realists. Realists are not enemies of Russia. If Hillary Clinton was a realist, Russia would consider her an ally for wanting to respect Russia's sphere of influence and poker player status and have favored her with their 2016 propaganda efforts. I do not wish to imply that Russian interference elected president Trump, or to deny the free and fairness of the 2016 US presidential election, those are controversial issues that do not affect the relevant point: It should be abundantly clear from the stated viewpoint of Russian subsidized propaganda outlets such as RT that Clinton was no ally of Russia. The Clintons are not realists, that is exactly what Vladimir Putin detests about them.
TL;DR: Just read what Bill Clinton wrote in citation 1. he's a smarter man than I, and these are not the words of a realist.
citation 1:
citation 2:
citation 3:
citation 4:
citation 5:
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2023.03.06 13:45 boutell New US CCS chargers report for February 2023

Here are all of the new US CCS (Level 3 fast-charging) stations that rolled out in February 2023, according to the Department of Energy. These chargers are suitable for most new EVs on the market, except for:
  1. Tesla drivers who haven't bought the official CCS adapter yet. Certain older Teslas need additional work done to accept the adapter.
  2. Leaf owners like me, and some owners of older cars that also use CHAdeMO. If you drive a Leaf, or an older CHAdeMO car, see my matching post in leaf.
There were 194 CCS charge points added in January 2023. That shows continued growth month after month. For comparison, there were only 87 new CCS charge points in February 2022.
If you'd like to know about new chargers along your routes right away, or just prefer not to check this list monthly when new openings are rare in your area, I've set up a free service that provides email notifications as soon as they open. You can sign up at Or not! I don't really have a business plan here, I built it to help EV owners like myself.

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Broadway Glendale, CA 91210 Glendale Galleria 23 DCFC 100 W. Broadway Glendale, CA 91210 Glendale Galleria DCFC 24 100 W. Broadway Glendale, CA 91210 2700 Carson St 2724 Carson St Lakewood, CA 90712 Chase Bank - 3502 Katella Ave 3502 Katella Ave Los Alamitos, CA 90720 Cal State Los Angeles - Parking Structure E 5151 State University Dr Los Angeles, CA 90032 Manhattan Village at Sushi Bao 3110 N Sepulveda Blvd Manhattan Beach, CA 90266 VW HYUNDAI CPE250 #1 4620 McHenry Ave Modesto, CA 95356 VW HYUNDAI CPE250 #2 4620 McHenry Ave Modesto, CA 95356 Amazon Fresh Murrieta-MurrietaHotSprings DCFC 92563 Murrieta Hot Springs Rd Murrieta, CA 92563 ONTARIO HYUNDAI VEHICLE DISPLY2 1307 Kettering Dr Ontario, CA 91761 ONTARIO HYUNDAI VEHICLE DISPLY1 1307 Kettering Dr Ontario, CA 91761 Orick 121200 US Hwy 101 Orick, CA 95555 RINCON CENTER STATION 2 121 Spear St San Francisco, CA 94105 RINCON CENTER STATION 1 121 Spear St San Francisco, CA 94105 The Masonic P3 DCFC 1111 California Street San Francisco, CA 94108 Webster Street Medical Center Southwest DCFC 2100 Webster Street San Francisco, CA 94115 Webster Street Medical Center Northeast DCFC 2100 Webster Street San Francisco, CA 94115 Stonestown Galleria Peet's DCFC 3251 20Th Ave San Francisco, CA 94132 7037 – San Jose, CA (2375 Quimby Road) 2375 Quimby Road San Jose, CA 95122 DS-73 14061 Riverside Dr Sherman Oaks, CA 91423 Green Tree Inn 14173 Green Tree Blvd Victorville, CA 92395 Amazon Fresh Friendly Hills Marketplace 02 DCFC 15311 Whittier Blvd Whittier, CA 90603 ➡ CO KUM & GO DACONO PL2 127 Laura Way Dacono, CO 80514 KUM & GO DACONO PL1 127 Laura Way Dacono, CO 80514 Five Points Parking Lot 2530 N Washington St Denver, CO 80205 DC CORRIDOR ESTES PARK PL3 500 Big Thompson Avenue Estes Park, CO 80517 DC CORRIDOR ESTES PARK PL4 500 Big Thompson Avenue Estes Park, CO 80517 Peak Kia - 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Molly's Food & Fuel 113 Hilley Rd Crawfordville, GA 30631 STIVERS SUBARU ST 1 1950 Orion Dr Decatur, GA 30033 STIVERS SUBARU ST 2 1950 Orion Dr Decatur, GA 30033 NeSmith Chevrolet Buick GMC 1910 E Chenny St Jesup, GA 31546 GEORGIA POWER LOGANVILLE DC1 4752 Athens Hwy Loganville, GA 30052 GEORGIA POWER LOGANVILLE DC2 4752 US-78 Loganville, GA 30052 Target Marietta #T2121 1401 Johnson Ferry Rd Marietta, GA 30062 EDVOYHYU SALES PARKING 1 2098 Cobb Pkwy SE Smyrna, GA 30080 ➡ HI Ala Moana Center 15 DCFC 1450 Ala Moana Blvd Honolulu, HI 96814 Walmart 5274 (Pearl City, HI) 1131 Kuala St Pearl City, HI 96782 ➡ IA Sidney Downtown 505 Filmore Street Sidney, IA 51652 ➡ ID Loop - Northern Lights Inc Headquarters 421 Chevy St Sagle, ID 83860 ➡ IL Town & Country Center DCFC 02 325 E Palantine Rd Arlington Heights, IL 60004 PRIDE of Aurora 713 DCFC 1395 Butterfield Road Aurora, IL 60502 Water Tower Place DCFC 835 N Michigan Ave Chicago, IL 60611 Pride of Geneva DCFC 1166 E State Street Geneva, IL 60134 HYUNDAI NORTH CPE250 A 901 S Milwaukee Ave Libertyville, IL 60048 HYUNDAI NORTH CPE250 B 901 S Milwaukee Ave Libertyville, IL 60048 WORLD HYUNDAI LEVEL 3-01 5337 Miller Cir Dr Matteson, IL 60443 Amazon Fresh Naperville-Ogden DCFC 1351 E Ogden Ave Naperville, IL 60563 Chase Bank - 4223 N Harlem Ave 4223 N Harlem Ave Norridge, IL 60706 Commerce Bank - Shiloh 4400 Green Mount Crossing Dr Shiloh, IL 62269 Woodgrove Festival Shopping Mall 1001 75th St Woodridge, IL 60517 ➡ IN RAY SKILLMAN CPE250 - SALES 1300 S U.S Hwy 31 Greenwood, IN 46143 WEBB AUTO GROUP BACK LOT 9236 Indianapolis Blvd Highland, IN 46322 WEBB AUTO GROUP FRONT LOT 9236 South Indianapolis Blvd Highland, IN 46322 GM - RAY SKILLMAN GMC TRUCK 8424 US 31 S INDIANAPOLIS, IN 46227 ➡ KS EZ Go - Philipps 66 Belle Plaine 770 N I-35, Milepost 26 Belle Plaine, KS 67013 SHARP DC FAST 01 3149 SW S Kansas Ave Topeka, KS 66611 HATCHETT FRONT LOT 757 N Tyler Rd Wichita, KS 67212 ➡ KY MOORE HYUNDAI DON MOORE 1 3200 Villa Point Owensboro, KY 42303 ➡ MA AUBURN HYUNDAI CHARGER #2 12 & 20 Southbridge St Auburn, MA 01501 AUBURN HYUNDAI CHARGER #1 735 Southbridge St Auburn, MA 01501 SMITH MERCEDES SMITH 01 420 River St Haverhill, MA 01832 SMITH MERCEDES SMITH 2 420 River St Haverhill, MA 01832 ➡ MD BGE - Pennsylvania Ave 1700 Pennsylvania Ave Baltimore, MD 21217 DARCARSKIA CPE250-1 12210 Cherry Hill Rd Silver Spring, MD 20904 Marlboro Crossroads 5700 Crain Hwy Upper Marlboro, MD 20772 ➡ ME IRVINGOIL ME-BNGR-L3-0002 301 Odlin Rd Bangor, ME 04401 IRVINGOIL ME-BNGR-L3-0001 301 Odlin Rd Bangor, ME 04401 ➡ MI 403 N Huron St. Parking Lot 403 N Huron St Cheboygan, MI 49721 Witbecks Family Foods 1026 N McEwan St Clare, MI 48617 2384 I-75BL (US-7XW-PLL-2A) 2384 I-75BL Grayling, MI 49738 2384 I-75BL (US-7XW-PLL-2C) 2384 I-75BL Grayling, MI 49738 2384 I-75BL (US-7XW-PLL-1C) 2384 I-75BL Grayling, MI 49738 2384 I-75BL (US-7XW-PLL-1B) 2384 I-75BL Grayling, MI 49738 2384 I-75BL (US-7XW-PLL-2B) 2384 I-75BL Grayling, MI 49738 2384 I-75BL (US-7XW-PLL-1A) 2384 I-75BL Grayling, MI 49738 WAW HYUNDAI CUSTOMER LOT#1 2845 E Saginaw St Lansing, MI 48912 WAW HYUNDAI CUSTOMER LOT#2 2845 E Saginaw St Lansing, MI 48912 Graff Cadillac Buick GMC Mt. Pleasant 116 N Mission St Mt Pleasant, MI 48858 Jule - Village of Port Austin 8861 Line St Port Austin, MI 48467 Burger King - Traverse City 2504 US 31 North Traverse City, MI 49686 ➡ MN Cobblestone Court Shopping Center DCFC 14150 Nicollet Ave Burnsville, MN 55337 GRAND RAPIDS CHEVROLET GMC INC 1610 SOUTH POKEGAMA AVENUE GRAND RAPIDS, MN 55744 Apple Auto 7200 Lakeville Boulevard Lakeville, MN 55044 ➡ MO 7950 State Hwy K Cape Girardeau 7950 State Hwy K Cape Girardeau, MO 63701 2017 Perryville Rd Cape Girardeau, MO 2017 Perryville Rd Cape Girardeau, MO 63701 2505 Veterans Memorial Dr Cape Girardeau, MO 2505 Veterans Memorial Dr Cape Girardeau, MO 63701 JLRCHESTERFIELD WALLBOX OUTSIDE 1 Jaguar Land Rover Way DC CHARGER North Park Chesterfield, MO 63005 LEVITON MACADOODLES 1 6050 Crossing Drive Osage Beach, MO 65065 LEVITON MACADOODLES 2 6050 Crossing Drive Osage Beach, MO 65065 SCH5701 SCH5701LEV3S 5701 Veterans Memorial Pkwy St. Peters, MO 63376 SCH5701 SCH5701LEV3N 5701 Veterans Memorial Pkwy St. Peters, MO 63376 ➡ NC Wegmans 11051 Ligon Mill Road DCFC 11051 Ligon Mill Road Wake Forest, NC 27587 ➡ ND NDAREC NDARECL3 3201 Nygren Dr NW Mandan, ND 58554 ➡ NJ NEW CHARGERS FRONT 3 180 US-202 Flemington, NJ 08822 NEW CHARGERS SIDE LV3 180 US-202 Flemington, NJ 08822 Commons at Holmdel DCFC 2130 State Route 35 Holmdel, NJ 07733 Gateway Shopping Center (NJ) DCFC 1014 Route 9 Old Bridge, NJ 08857 HYUNDAI DELIVER CHARGER 3 405 NJ-72 Stafford Township, NJ 08050 Pine Belt Cadillac Of Toms River 71 Route 37 East Toms River, NJ 08753 ➡ NY Wegmans 675 Alberta Drive DCFC 675 Alberta Drive Amherst, NY 14226 Amazon Fresh at Kohl's Center DCFC 3620 Long Beach Road Oceanside, NY 11572 Wegmans 3325 West Genesee Street DCFC 3325 West Genesee Street Syracuse, NY 13219 Thorpe's GMC 5964 MAIN ST TANNERSVILLE, NY 12485 EVolve NY Tully 7073 Route 281 Tully, NY 13159 ➡ OH Giant Eagle 3503 Polaris OH 9151 Columbus Pike Lewis Center, OH 43035 CLASSIC HYUNDAI WEST SIDE 8460 Tyler Boulevard Mentor, OH 44060 ➡ OK ADS-TEC - OnCue #129 5251 E Waterloo Rd Edmond, OK 73034 ➡ OR 2750 Campus Drive (US-QAW-WZM-1A) 2750 Campus Drive Klamath Falls, OR 97601 2750 Campus Drive (US-QAW-WZM-1B) 2750 Campus Drive Klamath Falls, OR 97601 2750 Campus Drive (US-QAW-WZM-1C) 2750 Campus Drive Klamath Falls, OR 97601 2750 Campus Drive (US-QAW-WZM-2A) 2750 Campus Drive Klamath Falls, OR 97601 2750 Campus Drive (US-QAW-WZM-2B) 2750 Campus Drive Klamath Falls, OR 97601 2750 Campus Drive (US-QAW-WZM-2C) 2750 Campus Drive Klamath Falls, OR 97601 ➡ PA KELLY HYUNDAI HYUNDAI LEVEL 3 254 Pittsburgh Rd Butler, PA 16002 BDHDELIVERY CUSTOMER PRKNG 3901 Hecktown Road, Easton, (18045), PA Easton, PA 18045 BDHDELIVERY STATION1 3813 Hecktown Rd Easton, PA 18045 Red Lion Plaza DCFC 9950 Roosevelt Boulevard Philadelphia, PA 19115 PIAZZA HYUNDAI LEVEL 3 RIGHT 1360 Wilmington Pike West Chester, PA 19382 PIAZZA HYUNDAI LEVEL 3 LEFT 1358 Old Wilmington Pike West Chester, PA 19382 ➡ RI Providence Place DCFC One Providence Place Providence, RI 02903 ➡ SC HOA CHARGERS 1 HYUNDAI CHRGR 1 1925 Pearman Dairy Rd Anderson, SC 29621 HOA CHARGERS 1 HYUNDAI CHRGR 2 1925 Pearman Dairy Rd Anderson, SC 29621 ➡ TN Andrews Cadillac Company 1 CADILLAC DRIVE BRENTWOOD, TN 37027 Park Motor Sales 919 Nashville Highway Columbia, TN 38401 ➡ TX MBBEAUMONT ABB STATION 1865 I-10 S Beaumont, TX 77707 PRINCIPLEAUTO22 STATION EV 1 32453 Frontage Rd Boerne, TX 78006 Shops at Clearfork - Orange Garage 5188 Monahans Ave Fort Worth, TX 76109 MB OF SANJUAN CPE250 01 400 E Expressway 83 San Juan, TX 78589 ➡ VA Sustain Abingdon 253 Depot Square SW Abingdon, VA 24210 HHMI APARTMENT C 1 19731 Janelia Farm Blvd Ashburn, VA 20147 Amazon Fresh at Lorton Marketplace 02 DCFC 9409 Lorton Market Street Lorton, VA 22079 Sudley Manor Square DCFC 7807 Sudley Road Manassas, VA 20109 HALL HYUNDAI NN STATION 1 12872 Jefferson Ave Newport News, VA 23608 HALL HYUNDAI NN STATION 2 12872 Jefferson Ave Newport News, VA 23608 ➡ WA Frederickson Place - Frederickson, WA DCFC 17710 Canyon Road East Puyallup, WA 98375 South Park 8461 Dallas Ave S Seattle, WA 98108 ➡ WI AMATO GLENDALE AMATO GLENDALE 5200 N Port Washington Rd Glendale, WI 53217 AMATO GLENDALE AMATO GLENDALE2 5200 N Port Washington Rd Glendale, WI 53217 AMATO GLENDALE FRONT N80W12650 Leon Rd Menomonee Falls, WI 53051 INT. AUTOS BMW NW CHARGER 2400 S 106th St West Allis, WI 53227 
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2023.03.06 07:21 Significant-Notice- Is Economics Self-Correcting?

The subtitle of that article is Replications in the American Economic Review, and the authors are Jörg Ankel-Peters, Nathan Fiala, and Florian Neubauer. Here is the abstract:
Replication and constructive controversy are essential for scientific progress. This paper reviews the impact of all replications published as comments in the American Economic Review between 2010 and 2020. We investigate the citation rates of comments and whether a comment affects its original paper’s citation rates. We find that most comments are barely cited, and they have no impact on the original papers’ subsequent citations. This finding holds for original papers for which the comment diagnoses a substantive problem. We conclude from these citation patterns that replications do not update the economics literature. In an online opinion survey, we elicited viewpoints of both comment authors and original authors and find that in most cases, there is no consensus regarding the replication’s success and to what extent the original paper’s contribution sustains. This resonates with the conventional wisdom that robustness and replicability are hard to define in economics.
If you see a critical comment in the AER, the odds that it is correct, and significantly so, are really pretty high, given the barriers to getting in. Yet no one seems to care. (Note that the lack of caring is connected to the Bayesian inference that the published critical comments likely are correct.) This is to me one of the more significant indictments of the economics professions as we know it today. And it is not obvious how we might change this state of affairs.
Here is the argument in tweet storm form.
The post Is Economics Self-Correcting? appeared first on Marginal REVOLUTION.


]( - In reply to rsm. My takeaway from Fix's articles: why can't rsm - Why does the economic consensus support raising interest rates rsm - Did the Great Depression fix itself?by Chuck Kotlarz

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2023.03.06 06:19 theColonelsc2 Peter Skene Ogden, one of the most important and turbulent personalities in the North American Fur Trade.

Peter Skene Ogden, one of the most important and turbulent personalities in the North American Fur Trade. submitted by theColonelsc2 to ogden [link] [comments]

2023.03.06 00:05 creemetismami Peter Skene Ogden, one of the most important and turbulent personalities in the North American Fur Trade.

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2023.03.04 05:21 healthylifeblogs The Surreal Beauty of Niagara Falls

The Surreal Beauty of Niagara Falls
The Surreal Beauty of Niagara Falls
Niagara Falls is a breathtaking natural wonder that straddles the border between the United States and Canada. With its stunning views, roaring waterfalls, and rich history, Niagara Falls is a popular tourist destination that attracts millions of visitors every year. Here is a closer look at the beauty of Niagara Falls.
Niagara Falls has been a popular destination for centuries, with the first European explorers visiting the falls in the 1600s. The falls were also an important location for Indigenous peoples, who considered the area sacred and used it for trade and commerce. Today, Niagara Falls is a popular destination for tourists from all over the world, with numerous attractions, hotels, and restaurants in the surrounding area.
Niagara Falls is a truly awe-inspiring sight, with three distinct waterfalls – the Horseshoe Falls, American Falls, and Bridal Veil Falls – that cascade over a steep cliff and into the Niagara River. Visitors can experience the falls from numerous viewpoints, including the Niagara Falls State Park in New York, the Niagara Parks in Ontario, Canada, and from boats that take visitors right up to the base of the falls. At night, the falls are lit up in a rainbow of colors, creating a truly magical experience.
Natural Beauty:
Beyond the falls themselves, Niagara Falls is surrounded by natural beauty, with lush forests, tranquil lakes, and scenic hiking trails. Visitors can explore the surrounding area on foot or by bike, or take a scenic helicopter tour to get a bird's eye view of the falls and the surrounding landscape. There are also numerous parks and nature reserves in the area, including the Niagara Glen Nature Reserve and the Niagara Falls State Park.
Niagara Falls is a hub of activity, with numerous attractions and activities for visitors of all ages. Some of the most popular activities include boat tours of the falls, zip-lining, hiking, and exploring the nearby towns and villages. The area is also home to numerous casinos, museums, and amusement parks, making it a great destination for families and groups.
Niagara Falls is a natural wonder that is sure to leave visitors in awe of its beauty and power. Whether you're a nature lover, history buff, or thrill-seeker, Niagara Falls is a must-visit destination that offers something for everyone. With its stunning views, rich history, and numerous activities and attractions, Niagara Falls is a truly magical place that should be on every traveler's bucket list.
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2023.03.03 11:19 uniquesblog Best Places To Visit In Mussoorie

Mussoorie is a beautiful hill station located in the state of Uttarakhand, India. It is a popular tourist destination known for its scenic beauty and pleasant climate. Here are some of the best places to visit in Mussoorie:
  1. Kempty Falls: It is a famous waterfall located about 13 km from Mussoorie. The water cascades down from a height of 40 feet, creating a beautiful sight. You can take a dip in the cool water and enjoy the scenic beauty of the surroundings.
  2. Gun Hill: It is a popular viewpoint located at an altitude of 2,024 meters. You can take a cable car ride to the top and enjoy the panoramic view of the Himalayas.
  3. Mall Road: It is the main shopping area of Mussoorie and is lined with shops, restaurants, and cafes. You can stroll down the road and indulge in some retail therapy.
  4. Lal Tibba: It is the highest point in Mussoorie, offering a panoramic view of the surrounding mountains. You can enjoy a trek to the summit and take in the breathtaking view.
  5. Mussoorie Lake: It is an artificial lake located about 7 km from Mussoorie. You can enjoy boating and paddle boating in the lake, surrounded by scenic beauty.
  6. Bhatta Falls: It is a beautiful waterfall located about 7 km from Mussoorie. You can take a dip in the cool water and enjoy the scenic beauty of the surroundings.
  7. Cloud's End: It is a scenic spot located at the western end of Mussoorie. You can enjoy a trek through the forest and enjoy the natural beauty of the area.
  8. Company Garden: It is a beautiful garden located about 3 km from Mussoorie. You can stroll through the garden, which is filled with colorful flowers and trees.
  9. Camel's Back Road: It is a 3 km long road, shaped like a camel's hump. You can enjoy a leisurely walk along the road and enjoy the scenic beauty of the surroundings.
  10. Jharipani Falls: It is a beautiful waterfall located about 7 km from Mussoorie. You can take a dip in the cool water and enjoy the scenic beauty of the surroundings.
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2023.02.28 00:17 nottobetakenesrsly An old article on hyperinflation and dollar collapse

TLDR; Article from 2009. An autodidact "Austrian economist", almost getting a full picture... good points made along the way.
At the time, goldbugs were proclaiming doom due to reserves being "massively printed" by the Fed. This article presented a critique of that position.
The article title is incendiary (and meant to disabuse the goldbugs of their claims at the time, not as an eternal pronouncement), and of course... this is fully American in viewpoint. I'll add notes as someone who works in the global banking industry.
----going long.
I get a lot of emails and questions from readers and friends about whether I think the U.S. Dollar could collapse and start a bout of terrible hyperinflation. The questions are usually stemmed from watching an interview on TV with extremely biased energy/gold analysts. People who have every reason to sell you on hyperinflationary doom in order to make themselves a quick buck. I have no respect for these people, so I will not publish their names. They know who they are. I call them the "opportunistic hyperinflationists."
But there is another group of "inflationists" who I do respect greatly. Guys like Peter Schiff, Jim Rogers, Doug Casey and Jim Puplava. These guys have spent years, if not decades, railing against the growing debt bubble and warning that it would end badly. A large faction of the Austrian School of Economics (of which I consider myself a student) had been doing the same. They are the "ideological hyperinflationists."
I would put many bitcoiners in this camp as well.
However, this group of economists/pundits/analysts have been terribly wrong in predicting how this debt bubble would unfold. And I am certain that they will continue to be wrong as it continues and reaches its ultimate conclusion.
Ignoring US debt's collateral characteristics means missing a big part of the problem.
Typically, these folks have a fundamental dislike of our current system of currency. The feel it is immoral, illegal by the U.S. constitution and is doomed to failure as all paper currencies have been since the beginning of civilization. I agree with them on all counts. But as a function of their dislike for paper money, they have been enchanted by its most obvious replacement: gold. They carry it around with them and flash it at interviews. They become walking salesmen for the return to a gold standard. And they point to a rising price of gold as proof that they have been right all along.
They haven't and aren't.
Their arguments are usually the same. That in order for the massive amounts of debt to be repaid, the Federal Reserve and other central banks are going to have to resort to monetizing that debt via the "printing press." Their claims are well documented. Even the chairman of the Federal Reserve has promised to do this, should it prove necessary, earning him the nickname "Helicopter Ben" (after promising to drop money from helicopters to prevent deflation). And it appears he has already started. We can see it in their own figures. By now, I'm sure all of my readers are familiar with the Monetary Base "Hockey Stick" graph below that shows how the Fed has essentially doubled the monetary base in just a few short months. This, claim the inflationists, is visual evidence that hyperinflation is already occurring and will inevitably start showing up in everyday prices:
The graph will show the reserve levels. Which would have been hockey stick'ed at the time. As I've implied in other posts, domestic reserve levels don't really correlate to global dollar supply.
It's relatively easy to demonstrate given reserve levels were historically low throughout the greatest inflationary decades of the United States... or by looking at Japan's decades long QE regime (reserve creation), that failed to push up inflation.
First and foremost is the apparent misunderstanding of the differences between money and credit.
And here is where the author will make some misteps.
At times, they may appear to have the same characteristics. At other times they act completely opposite from one another. As an economy is expanding, an increase in the total amount of credit would appear to have the same effect as an increase in physical dollars because credit is widely accepted as an equal to money. In a sense, they are the same. They are both "fiduciary media" (in english they are both a representation of something else, rather than having intrinsic value themselves).
Units that are created via credit are indistinguishable from any other denomination claim. "Money" is what it has always trended towards; a ledger system (which implicitly creates credit - a topic worthy of it's own post; a difference between traditional ledgers and Bitcoin).
But when the economy is contracting, the prospect of default is thrown into the equation. When this happens, money increases in value relative to credit. Money is more valuable than credit because in the event of default, the physical dollar holders are king. Yes, the U.S. treasury could default on it's obligations. Holders of treasury bonds would get a big, fat zero, while holders of physical currency would still have a claim. In effect, they act similar to a preferred share as opposed to common stock. They are a step above in terms of priority.
Except that it doesn't. As stated earlier, a "credit generated" unit is indistinguishable from some fabled "primal, non-credit" unit. In reality, "money" is the aggregation of the balance sheets of global banks.
As for physical notes being more valuable than "credit units"; the author will soon unknowingly suggest why they might not be. It has something to do with the fact that physical note issuance comprises the smallest portion of "money". This is not "rarity" to maintain value.. but "rarity" due to non-usefulness.
It is often said that we live with a "fiat currency" or with "paper money." This is not entirely accurate. A very small portion of our total supply of money and credit is in the form of physical currency. It depends on how you count it, but regardless, it is under 10% of the total. This is what differentiates our monetary system with that of Zimbabwe or Weimar Germany circa 1920's. Their economies were based on nearly 100% physical currency because nobody would accept the promises of government in order to issue credit.
Because who would want that?.
The vast majority of our money supply is in the form of electronic credit. Electronic credit can be destroyed, while physical notes issued by a central bank cannot. This is why deflation is possible in a credit based monetary system, but not in a paper based monetary system.
Ok, back on track. Credit is money.
There are hundreds of trillions of dollars floating around the world in credit. Much of that is an insurance contract on top of another insurance contract, on top of a securitized mortgage, on top of an asset. The total value of all the aggregate claims on the asset vastly outnumber the value of the asset itself. That is what this crisis is about at its very heart. Picture an inverse pyramid with assets occupying the bottom bit, securitized mortgages in the middle, and credit derivatives at the top. A stable economy would have a right-side-up pyramid with assets occupying the bottom, etc.
Yes. This does gloss over a great deal of complexity. The question of the size of the collateral multiplier (or if we should even have one), isn't reducible to an inverted pyramid analogy - but I agree that the system up to 2008 was unstable and operated with false certainty...
...and may be worse now.
Our problem now, is not that the assets are going to go to zero. It's the value of the much larger derivatives and mortgages that back the assets going to zero. Their values were derived from faulty computer models that grossly underestimated risk in the underlying asset, but more importantly in the ability for a counterparty to make good on their promise in the event of a default.
I like the dig at VaR (Value at Risk). I would go further... derivatives, swaps, repo, etc. perform a different function for wholesale banking than one of "investment"; They are balance sheet tools.
All are used to manipulate risk-weightings and provisions for credit loss - shifting balance sheet entries. They allow commercial banks to expand their balance sheets (and create more money by doing so).
I would say that our problem is one of collateral (and maybe the best reason to re-think things). We have a global ledger system: the interconnected balance sheets of the commercial banks of the world. Uncertainty and perceptions of risk create demand for safe and liquid collateral which underpins how these balance sheets interact. US dollar debt instruments have always been the go-to collateral for the system... and what would happen if confidence in those instruments is questioned?
So the next time you hear that the Federal Reserve is "printing money," please do not automatically assume that they are printing physical notes. They are creating electronic reserves (credit) to support the balance sheets of the big banks. There is absolutely nothing inflationary about this. The banks are simply taking it and using it to cancel out their derivative losses or are hoarding it in order to prepare for future losses. Previously, banks would have used the electronic reserves to go out and make 10x that amount in loans to consumers or businesses (in reality the order was the other way around - loans first, then reserves). That is not the case anymore, and until the bad assets are completely liquidated, it will not be the case again.
Yes. But also, reserves from the Fed are only useful to banks under the Fed's jurisdiction. The dollar is the unit of the global banking system. Reserves are used for domestic settlement, domestic interbank transfers.
And yes, loans first then reserves... that was the typical order. This was until reserves weren't required (and that was long before the Fed reduced to reserve requirement to 0%). Banks used the previously mentioned tools to manipulate their balance sheets to allow for further lending in spite of reserve requirements (something the author misses). Reserves do not make commercial banks lend.
Thus far, we have a total of $9.7 Trillion dollars in total government/central bank assistance in the United States. An amount equal to that and more has been provided by their counterparts around the world. More is promised. But the fact remains that the minimal inflationary impact these actions have are negligible in comparison to the amount of "problem assets" being devalued around the world. Much of it is just in guarantees - that is, more insurance. The Federal Reserve will offer to swap good assets for bad. All this does is cancel out debt from somewhere else. It's like moving money from one pocket to another. The act of putting money in your right pocket does not make you any richer.
It's was never "swapping" good assets for bad. It was the movement of collateral. The perception of the collateral changed. What was deemed "low risk" yesterday, became "high risk" overnight due to perceived correlation. In reality, many of the "bad" assets continued to perform and were sold at a profit (unknowable at the time).
All in all, the central banks are not nearly as powerful as they'd have you believe. The amount of the total money supply that is controlled by them is minimal. They won't tell you that. They'd prefer you to think that just by them moving their lips they can affect the entire economy's decision making processes. It simply ain't so.
Most definitely.
Closely tied to the belief in imminent hyperinflation and a skyrocketing gold price is the misplaced belief that the U.S. Dollar is on the brink of collapse. Essentially, they are one and the same. Many of my arguments against hyperinflation are the same against a dollar collapse. But there is even more evidence stacked against such an occurrence.
Ultimately, the Dollar will end up at zero - but that is not going to happen any time soon, and I would argue is likely decades away. Until then, the massive amounts of deleveraging will increase our appetite for dollars to pay back debt. There is too much credit in the system, and as we rid ourselves of it slowly, we need to acquire dollars. A large portion of the credit derivatives I mentioned above are denominated in dollars even though the underlying asset may be priced in another currency. This is a theoretical short position on the dollar. A "carry trade" in other words. It must be unwound, just like the Yen carry trade.
The issue with traditional ledgers, is not only that they allow for credit... They can erase the line between money and credit. Same misconception as highlighted at the beginning - they are the same "dollars".
This is what is meant when we call the U.S. Dollar the world's "reserve currency." Most people hear the word "reserve" and automatically conclude that because many other countries hold the dollar as their primary currency in their foreign exchange "reserves," that is what is meant by "reserve currency." It is not. Total foreign exchange reserves of dollars are far smaller than total foreign credit contracts denominated in U.S. Dollars (reserves worldwide are "only" ~4.6 Trillion). It is the reserve currency because it is the default currency for international trade and commerce in general. In order for that to change, 100's of trillions in contracts would need to be re-written. Not practical.
As such, demand for U.S. Dollars will persist.
In summary, there are many multiples more debt than capital in the world economy. Debt is being liquidated and will continue to do so until it reaches a sustainable level relative to capital. The process of this debt liquidation puts a higher value on dollars relative to debt, thus ensuring an oversupply of dollars is impossible.
I would put it differently. I disagree that an oversupply is impossible. However, the demand for dollars is agnostic to whether they are generated by credit or not. In reality, virtually all dollars are credit originated.
We are headed in a bad direction, but it will persist as long as the dollar is the denomination of the global banking system... and as long as USD denominated debt remains prime collateral.
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2023.02.27 06:16 travelaashiq6 Top 10 Treks in Maharashtra

Top 10 Treks in Maharashtra
Trekking is an adventurous sport that helps us to get a relaxed feel from our daily chaotic life. Generally, when we talk about trekking, we mainly think about the northern or northeastern states that come into the great Himalayan belt. Not only those states but many western and southern states have tremendous and adventurous treks.
Apart from the Himalayas, the Western and Eastern Ghats offer many trekking opportunities. Likewise, the place, trekking in these places is a lot different from the Himalayas. But these treks have their charm and prominence. The Western Ghats are the mountain ranges that run through the western coast of India.
The western ghats extend from Gujarat to Kerala, almost covering 1600 km of distance. The main interesting point and many people don’t know that the western ghats are older than the Himalayas.
A large chunk of the Western Ghats treks lies in Maharashtra. These hills or mountains are famously known as the Sahyadris. If you are looking to experience the western ghats trek, Maharashtra has more than 160 fort treks to explore. These fort treks were mostly built by the Marathas to guard their empire.
Including these fort treks, there are many treks to explore, but only a few of these treks have gained traction and are flocked by trekkers. Now in this article, we have curated a list of the top 10 treks in Maharashtra.

List of Top 10 Treks in Maharashtra

Kalsubai Trek

The highest peak in the Western Ghats is Kalsubai. The height of this peak is over 1646 meters. The Kalsubai trek is the most popular and challenging trek that attracts many adventure enthusiasts. The trek starts from the base village of Bari and takes around 3 to 4 hours to reach the summit.
The Kalsubai trek is also a part of the Kalsubai Harishchandragad Wildlife Sanctuary. It extends from Kalsubai to Harishchandragad. You can also see many famous forts like Madan, Alang, and Kulang. The best time to experience this wonderful trek is during the rainy season.
Overall, the Kalsubai trek is a must to do and experience trek for adventure seekers and nature lovers who were in Maharashtra or who were planning to visit Maharashtra.

Matheran Trek

Matheran is one of the popular hill stations located in Maharashtra. This place has the best scenic beauty and tranquility. The Matheran peak is a popular trekking destination for nature lovers and adventure enthusiasts.
The height of this is 2506 feet from the sea level. It has an amicable climate and various trekking trails that attract you all over the year. You can see almost 28 viewpoints scattered all around the place. Of those 28 places, One Tree Hill is one such place.
Amongst the different trekking routes, the most famous one goes through the Garbert Plateau. Apart from this, the Chanderi caves trekking is an adventure in itself. The Matheran trek is neither an easy trek nor a difficult one. The difficulty level is an easy to moderate level that takes around 2 to 3 hours to complete trekking.
Read More - Click Here
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2023.02.24 17:16 cos_i_am 2023-02-24 : New Country

From 2022-11-19 to 2023-02-24

Here are the new singles & albums for Friday February 24th 2023.
Singles :
Albums :
Spotify Playlist
As always, if there are any missing, feel free to reply to this post.
Don't forget to up-vote & say thanks!
Have a nice weekend! :)
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2023.02.23 17:42 AzCanyonRafting Top Guide To Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area

Top Guide To Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area
The Red Rock Canyon is such a unique location with a scenic drive that it's definitely on the bucket list of any geography enthusiast. This is located in Southern Nevada, Las Vegas, and it's one of the best places for adventurers to go experience and witness unique geographical formations like Grand Canyon National Park, Colorado River, Redwall Cavern and Marble Canyon in Arizona. Are you planning on taking a trip to the Red Rock Canyon any time soon? Then you must read this guide to help you out!

Where In Las Vegas Is The Red Rock Located?

The exact address of this hiking spot is 1000 Scenic Loop Drive, Las Vegas, Nevada, United States. You can travel to Nevada by driving or by flying in.

Top Viewpoints At Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area

These viewpoints are the ones you must see when you go to the Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area in Las Vegas.

Turtlehead Peak

This has one of the most impressive views in the area, perfect for any hiker or rock climbers due to Turtlehead Peak's impressive elevation gain. You will need to endure 4.6 miles of an upward trail but the view at the top makes the trail all worth it. Make sure to pack a windbreaker to protect yourself from the harsh winds.
At the top, you will have a clear view of the Las Vegas Strip, the desert, Lake Mead, and more.

North Peak

This particular location on the Red Rock requires a very long hike - 11.8 miles to be exact. You can skip the hike and drive the North Peak trail with an all-terrain vehicle, and then just finish off with a short hike, as some people do.
This is definitely one of the more challenging hikes because of the elevation and the winding trail, but it's definitely worth it. This point overlooks Rocky Gap Road, Bridge Mountain, and many more scenic spots such as red rock formations and sandstone formations.

Calico Hills

This location can be accessed both within and outside the Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area. Calico Hills is named as such because of the "calico"-colored hills and rock formations. This is because of the Aztec sandstone composition that yields and orange-red and tan-colored mountain range. This is not too far from the visitor center so it's pretty accessible to start with.
This trail can be accessed from different points. You can try to go through the visitor center or the Sandstone Quarry.
The entire hike on this grand canyon is about 6 miles, but you can always go for the shorter hike which is only 2 miles.
If you want a better view, check out the Calico 1 and Calico II viewing deck so that you can see more sand dunes, Calico tanks trail, the Willow Spring Loop, and other gorgeous trails surround the grand canyon. These paths also have a parking area at the entrance. If you want a memorable hike with a recreation area, loop road, and reasonable elevation gain, Calico Hills is the destination to aim for.
This park is full of red rock canyon formations that are truly remarkable. Immerse yourself in these redstone structures.

High Point Overlook

Looking for another scenic hike in Nevada, Las Vegas near the grand canyon? Try the High Point Overlook. This is perfect for hikers and people who like mountain biking with scenic views.
This location has stellar reviews from tourists and trailheads because of the gorgeous winding roads, clean area, accessibility to the canyon, hiking trail opportunities, and countless other things to do outdoors.
This can be a bit challenging compared to most hiking trails because the said point is situated up to 4000 feet above sea level. Whatever happens, a trip or drive to this location will surely be memorable. Make sure to take lots of photos to commemorate this spot.

Pine Creek Canyon

This location got its name because it literally follows a creek. This offers one of the most gorgeous outdoor scenes, with lush and green scenery with tons of pine trees in the conservation area. It has a reasonable elevation gain that makes it enjoyable to hike, even for beginners.
Pin Creek Canyon is a special location because it's a nice break from the usual desert views with sand dunes and very sunny hike pathways. This special park has a willow spring picnic area, some picnic tables, and other outdoors attractions. The road to the picnic tables has sandstone stairs that will surely look great in photos. It is also an excellent pathway for hiking.

Mount Wilson

This is technically not part of the general conservation area but it is still the highest peak among the Spring Mountains which are located on the Red Rock Canyon. This is actually so tall that it reaches 7,000 feet high. Such an elevation gain will surely make hikes more challenging so if you want some extreme outdoors hike, go for this canyon trip.
Don't worry because not all the hike trails are difficult. There are some for newbies or the people who don't know where to start but they just want to do nature things in a canyon. There is also an extreme trail for the experts. You may even try a loop trail in the conservation area.
The view from the top of Mount Wilson will make all the hiking worth it.

First Creek Canyon

Looking for a short and easy loop trail? Go for the First Creek Canyon trails! The hike only takes up to 2 hours and at the end of the pathway, you will witness a stunning grotto and the most beautiful little waterfall.
This is actually located just outside of the Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area, near the Spring Mountain Ranch State Park. It is definitely one of the shorter trails as it only measures 1.9 miles. It got its name because it follows a creek. Some parts of the trail may have dried streams but most of the area should have a light flow.
The highlight of this trail is the end of the hike where you witness a small waterfall that emerges from a boulder-filled area. The views along the hike are stunning. The waterfall area of the canyon has various vegetation and greenery, and some tend to be overgrown. There's also a Willow Springs picnic area where you can enjoy your food.

Ice Box Canyon

The Ice Box Canyon is a unique section of the Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area. It got its name from the cool water and low level of sunlight which keeps it cold. This is one of those hiking trails that is best traversed during the heat of the summer so that you can enjoy the cool breeze and not overheat.
This has a reasonable elevation gain and a variation of hikes for all types of adventurers. The general trail stretches for an hour long and you get scenic views along the way. At the end of the trail you'll see some seasonal waterfalls particularly during the months of December to April.
As a pro tip, it's important to dress in layers as you go on this trail. The elevation gain makes it a cold journey so dressing in layers will help keep you warm. You may also just remove some of your clothes if you feel the need to cool yourself down.

Petrogylph Wall

This is yet another exciting trail that is short yet extremely enjoyable. It is located in the Red Rock Canyon within the Willow Springs Picnic Area. This is the parking area and where the park entrance is located. Simply follow the trail from this location and proceed for 30 minutes until you reach the Petrogylph Wall.
This is one of the most unique hikes because of its historical trail. The petrogylphs on the wall are said to be 800 years old. You can secure a trip to this canyon and see the historical rock art yourself by consulting the Southern Nevada Conservancy.

Keystone Thrust Trail

This feature's one of the most important geological formations in the Red Rock Canyon - the Keystone Thrust. This is the mark left behind by the collion of the North American and Pacific Continental plates.
The trail will start at the White Rock Parking Lot and as you follow along, you will circle back to where you started. The trail is technically classified as easy but the 400-feet elevation may be challenging for some. The path gradually goes upward until you reach a saddle, and then you will see a gorgeous red rock ridge. Just follow the trail into a high red rock ridge where it will end. Every turn along the trail gives you a new and unique view of the red rock canyon which is what makes this so unique. You can even see the Calico Hills park from a distance.
This is one of the most enjoyable and easiest paths in Las Vegas. You start on a 2.2-mile journey that is roundtrip and gives you a holistic experience of the Red Rock Canyon.

Moenkopi Loop

This is one of the best desert hikes because of its relaxed pace and scenic trail. There are parking areas at the beginning of this canyon journey so that you can leave your vehicles behind and walk the rest on foot.
The Moenkopi Loop is a special trail because it's one of the historical spots in the entire park. Along the two-mile hike, you'll witness fossilized remains from centuries ago, perfectly preserves in the geological formations.
You will also see a smattering of unique flora and fauna that you can only witness in the desert. The Moenkopi Loop closely follows a limestone ridge. Red rock canyon formations can be seen from a distance.

White Rock - Willow Spring Loop Trail

This is another striking location in the red rock canyon because of the diverse mix of scenery and trails. You will see deserts, cacti, pictographs, a bridge mountain, and even wildlife. The White Rock Willow Spring Loop trail also features the La Madre Spring trail. However, this detour will turn your two-mile hike into a 6-mile one but trust me when I say that the views make it worth it.
This trail begins in the parking area and it loops behind the White Rock Mountain. You will go through a dense forest of junipers and pines. It's very nice and gorgeous. Savor this section because it's one part where you are sheltered and cool before you experience the elevation if you to decide to go for the spring. You also have the option to follow the main trail where you will be brought back to picnic areas..

Where Can You Stay Near The Red Rock Canyon?

Don't worry, because the area around the Red Rock Canyon in Las Vegas has so many lodging options! The vast range will give you budget flexibility. These hotels are also very near to the aforementioned spots in Las Vegas so all it will take is a short ride and then you'll be ready to hike.

Luxury Hotels

Las Vegas is known for its fair share of luxury hotels. One of the most popular ones is the Red Rock Resort & Spa which is only 5 minutes away from the park. Hotels like this offer luxurious rooms, mega suites, outdoor pool complex, a diverse dining experience, and more. As a bonus, you're only 30 minutes away from the ever-famous Las Vegas Strip!

Mid-Range Hotels

These hotels are about 5 minutes away from the Strip but 30 minutes away from the Canyon. These offer spacious rooms and lovely villas for everyone.
Some of the most famous mid-range hotels include Marriott's Grand Chateau, Staybridge Suites Las Vegas, and The LINQ Hotel.

Budget Hotels

There are plenty of budget hotels that are located about 10 minutes away from the Red Rock Canyon. Check out popular options like La Quinta Inn & Suites.

Pro Tip For Beginner Hikers

The best part about hiking the Red Rock is that you have a myriad of trails you can choose from. All types of adventurers are welcome, from beginners to experts. Here are some tips that you can apply before you set out on your hiking journey.

Invest In The Right Equipment

The hiking equipment that you wear will greatly impact your comfort level and performance. Invest in good quality hiking shoes that will keep your feet free from callouses and strain despite the long trails. Check out countless options of hiking shoes online. Be wary of affiliate links because that means the person who endorsed the product may get a portion from the sales. Take your time comparing your options and reading up on the reviews.

Research The Trails

Make sure to assess your skill level before going on hikes in the park. You may be tempted to go to a specific site but if the trail's length and elevation are too much for your skill level, then you'll end up not enjoying yourself. It's best to go for something you can perfectly handle. Each park is usually marked by the difficulty level so only go for what you can handle.

Follow The Local Rules And Guidelines

Going to the Red Rock Canyon is more than just a tourist activity. It's a chance to appreciate nature in its full glory. Out of respect to nature's beauty, make sure to follow the local guidelines. You can usually see these rules at the entrance or printed on the informative brochures handed out to tourists.
Pay the entry fee which is often used for the maintenance of the park. Take nothing but pictures and leave nothing but footprints. Do not litter and do not go into restricted areas. Always keep an eye on the guide and do not stray far from your tour group. For further information or assistance, feel free to contact us
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2023.02.23 15:17 TheTalkedSpy "God’s Laborers" (A Bible Class Lesson)

Note: The following is a lesson found on the La Vista Church of Christ website that is part of a series called the Corinthian Letters.

Class Discussion:

  1. Review the assignment on the concept of “boasting.”
  2. Is all boasting bad? Is it always good?
  3. Who should boast? Who should not boast?
  4. In what should someone boast? In what should a person not boast?
  5. Summarize when a person should boast and when he should not.

A Lack of Maturity (I Corinthians 3:1-4)

It appears that some in Corinth were trying to undermine the member’s confidence in Paul. We already know there are divisions over who people claimed to follow and Paul has hinted that some were disparaging the teaching he had done while in Corinth. Paul came with a plain message (I Corinthians 1:22-23) delivered in a plain fashion (I Corinthians 2:1-2). Now Paul explains why.
The simple matter was that the Corinthians were not mature enough to handle deeper truths. Paul had already pointed out that it takes a spiritual-minded man to understand spiritual truth (I Corinthians 2:15), but a worldly-minded person doesn't grasp things from the spirit (I Corinthians 2:14). The fact of the matter was that the Corinthians were too worldly in their view when Paul was there. They were too worldly because they were still new to Christianity. Thus, Paul kept his lessons simple, calling them “milk,” because they were not mature enough to handle “solid food” (I Peter 2:1-3; Hebrews 5:12-14).
The real shame was that they still were not ready for the deeper material because they were still worldly-minded. After all, their jealousy, strife, and divisions among themselves prove their worldly-mindedness (Galatians 5:19-21). From Paul’s viewpoint, they are behaving no differently than other people in the world.

Different Preachers, But Fellow Laborers (I Corinthians 3:5-9)

The importance of Apollos or Paul in the Corinthian’s lives was that these were men who had initially taught them the gospel. The reason Apollos converted one member and Paul another was more a matter of when the opportunity arose than anything else. They are merely the messengers whom the Lord used to deliver his message.
Using the imagery of a farm, Paul said he planted the seed. That is, he did the original work in the Corinth of teaching the Gospel. Apollos came after and watered the fields which Paul had prepared. But in both cases neither the one who plants or the one who waters actually produces the results, that is done by God alone, just as what happens on a farm (I Corinthians 15:10; II Corinthians 3:5). The work of the farmer is small compared to the work of God.
Both the planter and the one who waters, both Paul and Apollos, are united in purpose. They are in fellowship with one another. Both are necessary for the work. Neither planting nor watering exclusively will produce good yields. It takes the efforts of both. Yet, while working together, each receives his reward from God based on his own work and not the work of others (Psalm 62:12; Romans 2:6; Revelation 22:12). Paul and Apollos are fellow laborers belonging to God and the Corinthians are the field in which they are working or the building which they are putting together.

Literary Styles: Metaphor

A metaphor is the connecting of seemingly unrelated ideas to form an illustration. The two ideas are shown to be equal in some fashion and their characteristics compared to give a deeper understanding. This chapter of I Corinthians is rich in metaphors: infant children, farming, building, and fire are some of the more obvious ones.
By using a vivid image, difficult concepts are framed in familiar terms to make them more easily understood. Metaphors also aid in memory by allowing the image of one thing to trigger the remembrance of another.
Metaphors compare characteristics. They are not meant to state that every characteristic of one is found in the other. For example in: “Thomas was a wall, bouncing every tennis ball back to the net;” we are not saying that Thomas was unresponsive or wide or hard. There is a characteristic in a wall that Thomas shared at that moment – no balls got by him. To take a metaphor and make additional connections that the author didn’t is to stretch the metaphor beyond the author’s intention and can lead to false conclusions. As another example, when Paul called the Corinthians “babes in Christ,” he wasn’t saying they were cute or that they cried all the time. There is only one comparison that he wanted to emphasize: infants need a simple, easy to digest diet until they mature.

The Master Builder (I Corinthians 3:10-15)

Paul moves from the image of farmers working a field to craftsmen constructing a building. Paul was given, as a gift from God, the duty to lay a foundation. By this Paul is referring to his call to be an apostle (Ephesians 2:20). Others come after him to build upon that foundation. Paul preferred this type of work of going where others had not gone to get the cause of Christ started (Romans 15:20). But Paul warns that just because a proper foundation was laid, those who come later must still be careful how they build upon that foundation (II Corinthians 11:4; I Timothy 4:16). The foundation is critical, but it is not the whole of a building.
Paul is a wise and skillful builder. He is not elevating himself, but he is stating that he knew what he was doing. There is only one foundation that can be laid and that is Jesus Christ (Isaiah 28:16). The church belongs to Jesus alone (Matthew 16:18) and everything else derives from him. There can be no other (Galatians 1:6-10).
Recall that Paul stated in verse 9 that the Corinthians were God’s building. Paul and other preachers are using the materials available to them to build on the foundation of Christ. Some are of high and enduring quality. Others are cheap materials. Paul’s illustration is like the parable of the sower (Matthew 13:3-9, 18-23). The same message goes out, but the responses are different depending on the individual.
Some commentators see the different building materials as different qualities of teaching from good to false doctrine. This cannot be because there is only one true doctrine (Ephesians 4:4-6) and in this illustration, the work may be burnt, but the builder (teacher) will be saved (I Corinthians 3:15). Salvation is not promised to false teachers (II Peter 2:1-3).
Peter also uses the illustration of Christians being stones in a building: “Coming to Him as to a living stone, rejected indeed by men, but chosen by God and precious, you also, as living stones, are being built up a spiritual house, a holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ” (I Peter 2:4-5). Yet we know that becoming a Christian is not a guarantee of salvation. Only those who endure to the end will be saved (Hebrews 3:5-6; 4:11; Revelation 2:10). Whether a man’s work endures will not be ultimately revealed until the day of Judgment (I Corinthians 1:8; Romans 2:5, 16; II Thessalonians 1:10; II Peter 3:10).
The fire which tests each man’s work is not necessarily held off until the end of time. Each Christian faces the fires of trials during his life (Zechariah 13:9; I Peter 1:7; 4:12). We often focus on the loss of the Christian who is not able to endure the end, but here Paul mentions the impact the loss of such a Christian has on the teacher. It is a joy to see the efforts of your work last. It is a sorrow to see them come to naught. In either case, the preacher is saved, but the hardship he faces will be different (Ezekiel 3:17-21; 33:1-9).

The Temple of God (I Corinthians 3:16-17)

Each Christian is a temple of God (Exodus 33:12-17; I Corinthians 6:19; II Corinthians 6:16; Ephesians 2:20-22). A place where the presence of God can be seen in us, that the Spirit of God is in us. Many imagine an almost possession by God’s Spirit, but it is nothing so elaborate. God, Jesus, the Spirit, the word of God, and love all dwell in a faithful Christian (I John 2:14, 24; 4:16). The presence of God is seen in the behavior of a Christian. Thus if a person defiles the temple of God, God will be justly angered (I Peter 1:13-19).

Class Discussion:

  1. How is the presence of the Spirit seen in the Christian?
  2. How does the Spirit influence our behavior?
  3. In this context, in what ways can a Christian defile the temple of God?
  4. What other things would defile the temple of God?

Don’t Boast in Men (I Corinthians 3:18-23)

Paul now returns to the original problem: their division stemming from people pursuing worldly wisdom. It is a trap that can snare a person without them realizing it (Colossians 2:8).
To become truly wise, a person will need to become foolish from the world’s viewpoint (I Corinthians 1:18; 2:14). Only then will he be willing to accept the teachings of God which will make him wise (James 3:13-18).
It is interesting that Paul quotes Eliphaz in Job 5:13 to prove his point. Eliphaz was one of Job’s three friends who thought they were wise enough to advise Job in his problems. As Eliphaz stated, so it happened to himself – he was trapped by his own ideas of wisdom.
Quoting from Psalms 94:11, Paul proves that the wisdom of man is useless before God. Therefore, it ought to be clear that our hope should not be set in men (Jeremiah 9:23-24). We should not take pride in men because our pride would be misplaced. Men make mistakes, they come up short.
Rather than splitting up into factions, they ought to see that they belong to the whole. They are all in Christ (Galatians 3:28-29; II Corinthians 10:7), so they all belong to each other. Paul, Apollos, Peter, and the rest are teachers whom they all can benefit from. We all belong to Christ and through him, we all belong to the Father. All that is the world God orders for the benefit of His people (Romans 8:28), so even things in this life are for Christians, including the bad things which sometimes happen (Mark 10:29-30; Psalm 37:25). Even death is a benefit to the child of God (Romans 14:8; Philippians 1:21-23). Ultimately everything belongs to God (I Corinthians 11:3; 15:28).

Concept Study: Judging

  1. Make a list of all the verses in I Corinthians where some form of the word “judge” or its synonyms are used.
    1. Jot beside each reference what you learn from the verse about judging.
    2. Organize those ideas. Which verses address the ideas of who, what, where, when, why, and how?
    3. Write a paragraph about what “judging” means, addressing who, what, where, when, why, and how.
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2023.02.19 06:04 terrenuova 10 BEST THINGS TO DO IN MODICA, SICILY

Modica located in southeast Sicily is famous for its unique Sicilian Baroque architecture and locally produced chocolate. Nestled in the Hyblean mountains, the town is divided into two distinctive parts: Modica Alta and Modica Bassa. Discover The Best 10 Things To Do in Modica including major landmarks and architectural sights!
About Modica
• Modica is located in the Val di Noto area in the province of Ragusa, in southeast Sicily.
• Modica is divided into two towns: Modica Alta (Upper older Modica) and Modica Bassa (Lower Modica). The two parts of Modica are connected by a staircase path.
• Modica is known for its spectacular Baroque architecture and is designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site along with other 7 towns in the Val di Noto in Sicily for its Baroque art.
• Chocolate of Modica is speciality chocolate produced locally in Modica. The chocolate recipe used in Modica was inspired by an ancient Aztec recipe for Xocolatl.
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10 Best Things To Do in Modica
Modica is known for its spectacular views, impressive Baroque architecture, locally produced chocolate the Cioccolato di Modica, and steep staircases. One could spend days exploring this historical town. However, if you have only one day to visit Modica, below are the Top 10 Things To Do in Modica that you can accomplish in just one day. Terrenuova provides Adult erotic gay vacations at Masseria Della Luce, a charming, soulful masseria lovingly renovated with a touch of modern flair to create a one-of-a-kind Sicilian home.
1. Cathedral of San Giorgio
The Cathedral of San Giorgio is a fine example of the Sicilian Baroque architecture. From its strategic location, the Cathedral overlooks the whole town of Modica. The church is known for its impressive staircase of over 250 steps. The staircase connects Modica Alta and Modica Bassa and leads down to the lower town, Modica Bassa. At the top of the stairs, you can enjoy a spectacular view of the city
The interior of the church is filled with numerous works of art.
2. Chiesa di San Giovanni Evangelista
The church of San Giovanni Evangelista is located in the upper Modica Alta. The church sits at the top of the monumental staircase lined with trees on both sides.
The church is just a short walk away from Pizzo Belvedere (located on Via Pizzo) – a scenic spot with spectacular views of Modica and the surrounding area.
3. Chiesa di S. Teresa d’Avila
Chiesa di S. Teresa d’Avila is located in the central area of Modica Alta – an upper part of town. The church is a short walking distance from Chiesa di San Giovanni Evangelista.
4. Church of San Pietro
The Church of San Pietro is a Baroque church in Modica Bassa. The church sits at the top of an impressive staircase decorated with the statues of the 12 apostles. The interior of the church is spectacular, filled with frescoes and artworks.
The facade of the church houses the statues of Saint Cataldo, Saint Rosalia, Saint Peter, and the Madonna. The statue of Jesus is at the top.
5. Chiesa del Carmine
Chiesa del Carmine, also called The church of Santa Maria del Carmelo, was built in the Gothic style in the 14th century. It’s one of the few remaining examples of Sicilian Gothic architecture.
6. Chocolate of Modica
The Cioccolato di Modica is a traditional chocolate of Modica, produced using an ancient recipe. The chocolate of Modica was inspired by a recipe for Xocolatl from the Aztecs.
The chocolate is manually ground, giving it a unique grain texture. There are numerous varieties and flavours: raspberry, pineapple, pomegranate, lemon, pistachio, almond, and many more.
7. The Castle of Modica
For centuries, the castle of Modica (Castello dei Conti) was the seat of the political and administrative power of the County of Modica. The County of Modica was a feudal state in southeastern Sicily from the 13th to the 19th century.
At the top of the castle, you are rewarded with spectacular panoramic views.
8. Garibaldi Theater
The Garibaldi Theater was built in 1857 in a neoclassic architectural style. The magnificent interior is extremely well-designed and decorated with paintings.
9. Pizzo Belvedere
Pizzo Belvedere (located on Via Pizzo) is a scenic spot that offers spectacular views of Modica and the surrounding area.
10. Mercedari Palace
Mercedari Palace was built in the 18th century and is currently a museum in Modica.
Why Visit Modica
Modica is one of the most interesting towns in Sicily. Included in a UNESCO World Heritage Site along with 7 other towns of the Val di Noto area, Modica has a rich historical and cultural heritage. The town is home to several fine examples of Sicilian Baroque architecture. Modica is also famous for its delicious locally produced chocolate, the Cioccolato di Modica.
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2023.02.07 19:32 Simonbargiora Threads and Protect and survive from PHD thesis:”If All Else Fails... SURVIVAL Protect and Survive and the End of the World in Thatcherite Britain by Joseph Buscemi part 1

Taken from: Protect and Survive and the End of the World in Thatcherite Britain
by Joseph Buscemi
A thesis
presented to the University of Waterloo in fulfillment of the
thesis requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy
Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, 2020
“In the mid-1980s a “growing sense of frustration” was building within the Home Office as they realized they could never capture the nation’s attention as convincingly as popular culture.41 One week of television specials on nuclear war did more to encourage shelter sales (intentionally or not) than four years of government media.42 The history of the British anti-civil defence films can be traced back to The War Game, the influential docudrama by director Peter Watkins. Filmed in 1964 for the BBC, who controversially decided not to air the film after seeing the finished product. The BBC of the 1960s operated under a much more conservative mandate that the BBC of the 1980s. Twenty years later, in 1984, The War Game finally premiered on the BBC during After The Bomb Week, a weeklong lineup of anti-nuclear programming which also debuted the similar film, Threads.
Also premiering that week was an American anti-nuclear docudrama, The Day After. All three films took the form of exposition around a nuclear Armageddon. The War Game, in the style of a documentary film crew providing information and images of a shattered and burned post-attack civilization; The Day After with a more traditional disaster-movie narrative though still factually based; and Threads, a hybrid of the two, a narrative story following characters struggling to survive, but also containing researched text overlays and voiceovers.
Directed by the acclaimed Nicholas Meyer for ABC television in 1983, The Day After can be called the American Threads (or Threads can be called the British The Day After, if you prefer). The two tv films are remarkably similar in production, performance and even
41 TNA: HO 322/1024, “Proposed Civil Defence Film,” April 11, 1983. 42 “Why Nuclear Shelters Are Booming,” The Times, October 10, 1984.Chapter 9 - Skeletons, Celtic Rock, and Irradiated Sheffield: Protect and Survive and Popular Culture
distribution. The Day After was a sensation, shocking the Britain and North America alike, becoming an unforgettable Cold War moment, shared by millions around the globe. Over 100 million viewers tuned in to the ABC Sunday Night Movie to see the destruction of America. The Day After, as with Threads, became a cultural watershed and a mainstay of modern 1980s documentaries. The 46-rating share recorded for The Day After makes it the highest rated (as in percentage of the nation watching simultaneously) tv film of all time, to this day.43
Both films captured the fear and paranoia of people living under the threat of the Bomb. The TV films were depicted with such terrifying reality, they caused physical illness in many susceptible viewers, particularly children, who suffered greater nuclear anxiety than previous generations.44 The films were one of a kind examples of event-television, a cultural happening that had real-life implications after the broadcast. For The Day After, US Secretary of State George Schultz recorded an after credits message assuring the nation that the Reagan Administration was doing everything in its power to avoid nuclear war. This recording played after a post credit text that explained that the film actually downplayed the effects of nuclear war for narrative purposes.45
The similarities continued as both the BBC, ABC (and their Canadian affiliates) anticipated the terrifying effect the films would have on national psyches. Before the premier of The Day After ABC warned viewers with a somber introduction from one of the film’s actors, John Cullum. For Threads, the BBC had host John Tusa caution the British public on the distressing nature of what they were about to see. In North America, TBS owner Ted Turner
43 “Top 100 Rated TV Shows Of All Time,” TV By The Numbers (blog), March 21, 2009,
44 Gunter and Wober, “Television Viewing and Public Perceptions of Hazards to Life.”
45 Daniel Cordle, Late Cold War Literature and Culture: The Nuclear 1980s (Springer, 2017), 112.Chapter 9 - Skeletons, Celtic Rock, and Irradiated Sheffield: Protect and Survive and Popular Culture
advised viewers that their intention is not to frighten, but to inspire world peace with graphic depictions of nuclear war. In Canada, Vancouver’s CKVU president Peter Weissbach, informed the audience that the decision to air Threads was not an easy, but it was necessary. CKND
Winnipeg’s viewers were greeted by station president DC Brinton, who cautioned: “you will not be watching a pleasant drama ... it makes [The Day After] look like a walk in the park” (Figure 30). Both films aired without commercials (standard for BBC but unique to American television) and ABC had counselling hotlines pre-arranged, something never done to date, and never repeated since. ABC provided a 1-800 number for traumatized viewers while the CND provided advanced leaflets with their own counselling number. British author Chas Newkey-Burden recalled becoming physically ill after viewing Threads as an 11-year-old, so much so that he
Figure 30 Words of Caution: Many networks felt a need to warn viewers about the disturbingly graphic depictions of nuclear war they were about to witness in Threads. (Clockwise from top left): John Tusa on BBC2, prefilm text on CKVU Vancouver, DC Brinton on CKND Winnipeg, and Ted Turner on WTBS.Chapter 9 - Skeletons, Celtic Rock, and Irradiated Sheffield: Protect and Survive and Popular Culture
formed a CND branch the next morning with fellow youth who were more “petrified than political”.46
Both films were followed by a live televised debate on nuclear weapons, reflecting both the politicizing and sensationalizing of civil defence. Americans watched Viewpoint, hosted by Ted Koppel, while the British witnessed the Newsnight Debate with John Tusa. In terms of influence, the edge may go to the American film, however. Ronald Regan recorded that he felt “greatly depressed” after the film. An unsubstantiated rumour has it that the film lead directly to Regan signing the impactful Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty with Soviet Leader Gorbachev. The anecdote is referenced in many peer-reviewed books, though director Nicholas Meyer maintains that tale was apocryphal.47
While both films premiered the same night for British audiences, their content, though very similar, were said to have differences characteristic of each nation. Though apocalyptic, The Day After contained a difficult to quantify, vague optimism that was not present in Threads. The Day After ended with the main character, though badly wounded, walking towards the next town, intent on helping the rebuilding effort. Threads went to great lengths to portray the end of Britain, and British society, entirely. One British critic described moral distinctions as The Day After being “tainted” by subtle hope and optimistic American sensibilities, turning the film into yet another disaster-movie.48
In 1984, one British entrepreneur was building a luxury nuclear shelter and selling occupancy at £3000 plus annual fees. The day after Threads, he was able to double his rate.49
46 Dan Stone, The Oxford Handbook of Postwar European History (OUP Oxford, 2012), 459.
47 The Oxford Handbook ... also recounts the anecdote as fact.
48 Jim Dyer et al., “Medicine And The Media,” British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Edition) 289, no. 6449 (1984): 914–15.
49 Evans, “A Doorway to Life after Doomsday?,” 1984.
362Chapter 9 - Skeletons, Celtic Rock, and Irradiated Sheffield: Protect and Survive and Popular Culture
One review of the Threads summed up the film with one word, “Horror”.50 Russell Hoban, author of Riddley Walker, a post-nuclear dystopian play and novel (see above), recalled his experience attending a preview screen of Threads. The preview audience was said to have left in total silence, still recovering from the vaporization of British civilization. Threads was so effective, according to Hoban, that “it cancelled all aesthetic distance between our unthinking and the unthinkable”.51 Another Listener critic recalled that the BBC did not permit QED: A Guide to Armageddon to visualize the deterrent failing, and evidently, times were more permissive two years later as it failed catastrophically in Threads. Cultural critic Benjamin Woolley was shocked by the “suffering without understanding” that the characters had faced. It recalled for him the characters in When the Wind Blows, both attempting to survive with “the laughably inadequate” advice in the Government pamphlet Protect and Survive. Woolley found Threads the scarier of the two tv films, as the war in Threads progressed so subtilty, it was entirely plausible. The imagery of Threads was “powerful and disturbing,” with the bureaucrats worse than useless, and British society rapidly descending into the worst primitivism.52
Critic John Naughton was less impressed than most. He found not much new being brought to the nuclear destruction table, though he admired the effort of Threads. Naughton found the film predictable, though better than The Day After. Naughton may have simply been attempting to be a contrarian however, as he is of the lone opinion that the annihilation in Threads was actually overoptimistic in its portrayal of the moribund society operating as they
50 Peter Davalle, “Today’s Television and Radio Programmes,” The Times, September 24, 1984.
51 Russell Hoban, “Russell Hoban: A Personal View of Threads,” The Listener, September 27, 1984, 3. 52 Benjamin Woolley, “Drama,” The Listener, September 20, 1984.Chapter 9 - Skeletons, Celtic Rock, and Irradiated Sheffield: Protect and Survive and Popular Culture
would have in the middle ages. Naughton also wondered how a plastic Sainsbury bag could look so fresh thirteen years after a nuclear attack.53
JK Huston, County Emergency Planning Officer for West Sussex Council, wrote to F6 to inform them that he and his staff had recently watched Threads. The Council believed a companion film should be created, taking place in a county where the Bomb did not strike, showing the importance of civil defence. Huston did not provide any ideas on how a film of people surviving a nuclear attack just fine would be very compelling.54
The following year, the Central Office of Information conducted an interview of 80 people for their thoughts on civil defence. Some of the most common opinions were that it was, “run by military, controlled by government, secretive and elitist, cold, inhuman, futile and somewhat absurd”. The absurd comment concerned COI, and they pushed further, replies were broken down to opinions that “mentioned the ‘daft advice’ in Protect and Survive, while others had seen it parodied on tv shows”. Ultimately, COI considered scrapping the survey results as one of the most common factors shared amongst respondents was that they had seen a repeat of Threads a few weeks earlier and associated it with official civil defence. 55
Directed by Mick Jackson and written by Barry Hines, Threads became notorious for its graphic depictions of nuclear attack and for traumatizing a nation. Mick Jackson had also created the slightly traumatic QED. The early shots of shredded pumpkins were a source of inspiration for Threads. As with The Day After, Threads was credited with forcing some Britons to seek psychological counselling the morning after, a testament of the film’s visceral impact. While The
53 John Naughton, “Television,” The Listener, September 27, 1984.
54 TNA: HO 322/1024, “Civil Defence Film,” February 12, 1985.
55 TNA: INF6/2490, “Civil Defence: Preliminary Attitudinal Research,” September 5, 1985.Chapter 9 - Skeletons, Celtic Rock, and Irradiated Sheffield: Protect and Survive and Popular Culture
War Game focused on the unnamed people of Kent, Threads followed the lives of a couple, Jimmy and Ruth, and their connected families.
The film was memorably set in Sheffield, much to the delight for some Sheffielders, though it was purposely filmed to have been any British town, Jackson hoped to instill fear in every viewer. Sheffield also served as a transit and industry hub to the rest of Britain, the centre of the nation, a gateway between the North and South, East and West. Threads was a wonderfully insightful title, capturing all the delicate and fragile connections that made modern life possible, and how easily they could be severed. This is brought to life by the opening shot of a spider weaving a fine web, with power and phone cables superimposed.
The narrator makes their first voiceover as the web is woven informing the viewer: “In an urban society, everything connects. Each person’s needs are fed by the skills of many others. Our lives are woven together in fabric. But the connections that make a society strong also make it vulnerable”. An ideal introduction to the film the viewer is about to consume, already forcing a realization of the kind of devastation that would befall a developed nation like Britain, without its many threads of connection. Jackson went to considerable lengths to obtain civil defence plans from the Home Office and made constant reference to Protect and Survive.56
A web also served as a visual representation of Britain’s wartime communications system. Jimmy and Ruth are introduced, him an affable chap and her a sweet British girl. They sit in their car, precariously balanced on the edge of a cliff, providing a beautiful view of Sheffield. They are connected to the nation through the radio, informing them of the latest overseas crisis which Jimmy switches off. The young couple, like the nation, are poised on a precipice, close to the edge of oblivion. While other nuclear disaster films go to great lengths to
56 Mick Jackson, Threads, TV-Film (UK: BBC, 1984).
3Chapter 9 - Skeletons, Celtic Rock, and Irradiated Sheffield: Protect and Survive and Popular Culture
detail the scenario leading to missile launch, Threads plays out mostly as it would for the characters in the film. Bits and pieces of the deteriorating situation are caught in the background, on passed televisions, overheard radios or glimpses of newspapers.
A letter is delivered by police to the Controller of a Sheffield borough, who then proceeds with official protocol, gathering the Home Office War Book and proceeding down the lengthy checklist of steps. A woman at a CND rally is speaking on money being wasted on nuclear weapons while a man yells at her to get back to Russia.
The first threads were being cut, movement and communication were restricted, while news mentions that the skirmish in the Middle East has seen the use of a “battlefield” nuclear device. The government publishes the newsprint edition of Protect and Survive and broadcast the videos on television (Figure 31). As the public slowly catch on, a grocery store is already madness, the shop owner gouges his prices and the customers resort to looting. Ruth’s parents notice their
neighbour attempting to self-evacuate, though they later find roads out of town are blocked by police, enforced stay-put.57
The Controller looks somberly at the family photos, a nod to the many “bunkers for bureaucrats” articles in newspapers about bunker dwellers being unable to bring their families. Protect and Survive media now airs on all channels as the BBC converts to the Wartime Broadcasting Service. Jackson is to be credited for obtaining the highly illusive programme
57 Ibid.
Figure 31 Captive Audience: Townsfolk watch Protect and Survive through a shop window in Threads
Chapter 9 - Skeletons, Celtic Rock, and Irradiated Sheffield: Protect and Survive and Popular Culture
video for his film (Figure 32). In Threads, Protect and Survive plays in a noticeably low-quality state. It is possible that the clips in Threads are a recording of a recording, with Jackson collecting the video clips from a BBC copy of the Panorama special two years prior.
The Local Authorities are unsure of their duties while Jimmy’s working-class parents remove their doors and construct their Protect and Survive lean-to as Ruth’s middle-class family takes to their basement. Suddenly, air sirens blare in the town square as people run in every direction. On screen text describes the first bomb, it exploded high above the North Sea refinery. An air burst, it generates a massive EMP that damaged all electronics across the nation. Power
lines overload, cars falter, and sirens go silent, Mick Jackson begins to cut more threads of society. Then a detonation outside of Sheffield, likely targeting the nearby airbase. Jimmy runs off which is the last the viewer sees of him.
The attack continues to play out almost verbatim from what was predicted in London After the Bomb. Text reads that 80mt had been dropped on Britain with 3 – 9 million instant casualties. A woman screams, the screen goes white, and the audio falls silent as a detonation occurs over Sheffield. The heat flash melts vehicles and instantly sets fire to the room where Jimmy’s family hid. More text reads that 3000mt have been dropped worldwide, 210 in the UK alone with 2/3rds of all houses on fire.
Figure 32 Emergency Education: A family creates the familiar lean-to as Protect and Survive plays on television (left) and radio (mid).
Chapter 9 - Skeletons, Celtic Rock, and Irradiated Sheffield: Protect and Survive and Popular Culture
The camera pans the wreckage of Sheffield, charred hands stick up between gaps of rubble, past melted faces with upturned eyes. The lean-to has survived the blast though Jimmy’s parents are not well off, his mother’s hair already gone, face burnt, Ruth’s parents wail in the dark of their basement. Text informs the viewer that an hour later fallout descends, and a ground explosion detonates over Crewe.58
The voiceover states explosions have blown away most roofs leaving homes open to fallout dust. One week is said to have passed and food was now government controlled as a foreboding soldier in full hazmat keeps watch outside a warehouse. Inside the municipal bunker, staff are trapped with poor ventilation, their entrance covered with debris (Figure 33). Mobs attempt to break into food stores guarded by the Army, and some are shot. 16 days have now passed, past the two-week shelter period recommended by Protect and Survive. A sea of survivors slowly shuffles into a bombed-out hospital, though the doctors and nurses can provide no care.59
A group of strangers emerge from
Ruth’s basement with cans of food. They are grabbed by a passing army patrol who uncover that the looters had
killed the family and the soldiers enforce capital punishment. More time has passed, and the
58 Possibly a reference to Hack Green SRHQ, located outside Crewe. Its location was not well known by 1984, leaving it as either a coincidence or very impressive research by Jackson and Hines.Chapter 9 - Skeletons, Celtic Rock, and Irradiated Sheffield: Protect and Survive and Popular Culture
viewer is informed healthy people are forced into reconstruction, food sorts itself out, as more starve or vanish, more food becomes left for the remaining. There is no spare fuel to burn, nor spare manpower to dig, and thus 10-20 million Britons are said to remain unburied. Rescue crews finally get to the Local Authority bunker only to find them all dead, in darkness, having suffocated days ago, the Controller still at his desk.
As the film progresses forward four months, Jackson makes it evident that there are no survivors in Threads, even if they still live. Poison, starvation, disease, exhaustion, despair, violence and neglect all claim victims in the millions. There is no England to rebuild, no recovery to support, no government nor assistance. 3 to 8 years, the viewer is told that the population has reached a new minimum, 4 – 11 million, equal to medieval Britain. Further in the future, time is irrelevant, “the last scenes of the film lose their specificity of time as well as place, to suggest a process of destruction extending into the whole climate of the region”.60 Children are educated by a recording of children’s programming, the video is in terrible condition, as are the stunted children. These children are the future of Britain, and Jackson puts forward that therefore there is no future for Britain. Dystopian cinema often portrays a pre- industrial society working towards a future, though this is not the case in Threads. The destruction of the nation is so complete, not even the language has survived as two boys fight over a dead rabbit shouting “giss’n! come on. Giss’n!”61
Later, Ruth’s child is shown pregnant and wandering into a shack, what serves for a clinic in the future. Ruth’s grandchild represents the future of England itself, and the future is not optimistic. A nurse hands the baby to Ruth’s daughter in a tattered and bloody cloth. The baby is
60 David Seed, “TV Docudrama and the Nuclear Subject: The War Game, The Day After and Threads,” in British Science Fiction Television: A Hitchhiker’s Guide, ed. John R. Cook and Peter Wright (London: I.B.Tauris, 2006), 63.Chapter 9 - Skeletons, Celtic Rock, and Irradiated Sheffield: Protect and Survive and Popular Culture
silent. Ruth’s daughter begins to pull back the cloth, and what she seems causes her to scream though the frame is paused before she makes a sound. This is the last image of Threads, before credits play in silence, Ruth’s daughter’s face contorted in horror looking at her child, whether deformed or stillborn, the child, as England, has little future.
Threads was effective for many reasons, particularly for the manner in which it destroys any “protective illusions” of Protect and Survive the viewer may have harboured. Threads depicted “the cruel sham of the government’s Protect and Survive”. One author noted the “nice touch of irony” that the bureaucrats were suffocated under town hall, and the “disintegration of the threads of [British] civilization” were unraveled. The critic found the text overlays and unseen voiceover as distracting however, recalling that they “pulled one back from the imaginative identification with the characters”. This evidences the vicariousness that made Protect and Survive so compelling to the nation. People identified, even though they were simple cartoons in Protect and Survive, with the characters of these films as they morbidly wished to picture themselves in the horrific situations, to see if they could survive, to find out what they would do if the bomb dropped.62
The references to Protect and Survive in Threads were very deliberate. Director Mick Jackson went to great lengths to research both the programme and the intended response to nuclear war by the British government. As with most references to Protect and Survive in British popular culture, the programme was used as shorthand to deride the Conservative government and to position any attempts of civil defence as entirely foolish. Artists against the deterrent were able to use Protect and Survive for their purposes to frighten moderates into believing they lived in jeopardy as long as unilateralism was prevented from liberating the nation.”

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