Mass gov rmv

BostonTrees - Marijuana Discussion, Info, News for Boston, Massachusetts, New England, and more

2010.12.21 06:24 parkman47 BostonTrees - Marijuana Discussion, Info, News for Boston, Massachusetts, New England, and more

BostonTrees is a subreddit for the civil discussion of cannabis/marijuana/weed/pot in and around Boston, Massachusetts and New England. Join the conversation today. Read the FAQ first, follow the rules:

2009.01.02 23:18 Learn, Plan, Prepare, Survive.

Place to post tips, tricks, evacuation, safe heavens, guides and what ever is necessary to survive a life or death situation.

2014.10.22 20:01 MA Guns

firearms ownership and related topics in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. not an alternative to Google web search (try Bing).

2023.03.22 10:33 take_eacy 2023-03-20 Massachusetts COVID daily data report: 1040 new cases, 7 new deaths, 20374 individuals tested

Daily MA Covid Numbers reported from 2023-03-20:
Individuals who tested positive: 1040 (2023-03-20)
Data from 7d prior for reference: 1110 (2023-03-13)
Total individuals who tested: 20374 (2023-03-20)
Data from 7d prior for reference: 20469 (2023-03-13)
Deaths: 7 (2023-03-20)
Data from 7d prior for reference: 9 (2023-03-13)
This is an automated post using data drawn from the Chapter93 State Numbers Daily Report file. This data is still being reported daily on weekdays by It is important to note that these are reports of cases, tests, and deaths -- NOT the actual definitive count. These numbers are often revised post-hoc, but this is the hot-off-the-press daily number given by the state (which I report the following morning).
The test counts (total and positive only) include all test types that are reported that day. An individual who takes multiple tests of different types in one day is only counted once. The death counts can differ from the dashboard since the death counts reported here are not finalized (dashboard numbers are finalized). Deaths which are reported on Friday are rolled into Monday's reported numbers. Deaths reported from Saturday, Sunday, and Monday are rolled into Tuesday's reported numbers.
Because of these peculiarities in reporting, I only show the data from 7d prior as a reference point. I defer graphical representation of COVID data to oldgrimalkin's beautiful visualizations.
submitted by take_eacy to CoronavirusMa [link] [comments]

2023.03.22 09:00 AutoModerator Boston Daily Discussion Thread, Wednesday March 22

Hey Boston
This thread is for chatting about what is going on in Boston today. This includes the news about today's commute, what is going on around Boston, commonly asked questions, as well as a general free chat throughout the day.
Example topics include:
Here are some useful links as well:
  1. The weather
  2. MBTA alerts and delays
  3. Official COVID-19 Information
Please be civil and keep things SFW.
Self promotion of Boston related events, activities, and news is allowed so long as the event is happening within the next 5 days and not a regularly occurring event.
If there is something you'd like to see here please message the moderators and let us know.
submitted by AutoModerator to boston [link] [comments]

2023.03.22 01:25 AnonymousUserName445 MA apartment complex has a lease with Bed Bug Addendum. Is this legal?

I posted in MA forum but thought the legal gurus here might be of more assistance...
About to sign a lease for an apartment at a complex owned by a large corporation. There is a bed bug addendum in the lease. This immediately raised a red flag for me. Then, I came to this section of the addendum and now I am absolutely confused as to whether this is even legal:
"If you, your co-tenants, occupants, invitees or guests are found to be the source of any bed bug infestation, then you may be obligated to the following responsibilities, you may be required to pay all reasonable costs of cleaning and pest control treatments incurred by us to treat your dwelling unit for bed bugs. If we confirm the presence or infestation of bed bugs after you vacate your dwelling, you may be responsible for the cost of cleaning and pest control treatments. If we must move other residents in order to treat adjoining or neighboring dwellings to your dwelling unit, you may be liable for payment of any lost rental income and other expenses incurred by us to relocate the neighboring residents and to clean and perform pest control treatments to eradicate infestations in other dwellings."
First of all, I have never in my life had bed bugs nor do I even know someone that did. But this section of the addendum seems pretty confusing to me. So basically, the landlord can try and claim that we brought the problem in? Or that someone we invited over did? And that if they determine we brought them in, that we can be held liable for the treatment?? Doesn't this directly violate the law? "In most cases, a landlord or property manager is required by law to “maintain the dwelling they own without insect infestation” (MA: 105 CMR 410.550). It is the landlord’s responsibility to respond to any complaints of bed bugs. " (Source)
I need a place to live and love this apartment complex. I did read another section of the lease that claims "If any provision of this Lease Contract is invalid or unenforceable under applicable law, such provision shall be ineffective to the extent of such invalidity or unenforceability only without invalidating or otherwise affecting the remainder of this Lease Contract"
Does that mean if I sign this lease with the bed bug addendum, and this addendum is essentially the landlord's attempt to circumvent their responsibility to treat the problem, then a court would essentially deem the bed bug addendum meaningless anyhow?
Can a landlord essentially force a tenant to waive their right to providing habitable conditions without an infestation?!
submitted by AnonymousUserName445 to legaladvice [link] [comments]

2023.03.22 00:43 Catvac-u-um_adnase Agriculture news March 20, 2023-Flooding from cyberattacks? * Weather forecasting gets scrutiny * Vilsack to be keynote speaker at Agri-Pulse policy summit

With full reservoirs, cyberattacks on dams worry lawmakers
A state Senate committee has advanced a measure to prepare critical infrastructure for cyberattacks. Sen. Melissa Hurtado of Bakersfield pointed out that previous attacks have attempted to release water from a dam in New York and successfully shut down meat processing plants.
One expert testifying in support warned the federal government would be overwhelmed if a mass cyberattack threatened food, water and power. Sen. Bob Archuleta of Pico Rivera feared an attack could release water from reservoirs during winter storms, leading to catastrophic flooding downstream.
Remember: Last year the state signed into law a separate bill from Hurtado on cybersecurity for water infrastructure. It tasked the state’s emergency services office with developing a strategic plan to assist the food, agriculture, water supply and wastewater sectors with protections.
Wine Country wants to improve weather forecasting
A new bill capitalizes on emerging forecasting technology to better prepare California for sudden droughts.
Forecast-informed reservoir operations, or FIRO, aims to retain as much water in reservoirs as possible ahead of storms and anticipated runoff while enabling better flood control as well. AB 30 would expand FIRO to more parts of the state. It gained unanimous support.
Why it matters: Mark Fenstermaker, a lobbyist for Sonoma Water, explained that 1960s-era federal rules led the district in 2013 to release 30,000 acre-feet of water from Lake Mendocino. It didn’t rain for another three years. In 2019 a minor rule change enabled the district to retain more in the reservoir.
Yet the lake all but dried up again in 2021, leading cities to cut water use in half and dairies and wineries to get creative in adapting to extreme scarcity.
Vilsack keynotes Agri-Pulse policy summit
Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack will headline the annual Agri-Pulse Ag and Food Policy Summit today in Washington.
This year’s conference will focus on issues critical to ensuring long-term agricultural sustainability and food security.
The summit will feature interviews with the leaders of the House and Senate Ag committees and discussions with a diverse array of experts and producers. They’ll debate a range of issues, including the challenges facing beginning and minority farmers as well as future needs for risk management, agricultural research and nutrition assistance.
Registration for the summit is still available today online, or in person at the National Press Club.
By the way: The Biden administration’s “waters of the U.S.” rule officially takes effect today, an issue almost certain to occupy time at a Senate hearing this week with EPA Administrator Michael Regan. A Senate vote to eliminate the rule also is nearing.
Read more about WOTUS in our Washington Week Ahead.
Senate bill would freeze Adverse Effect Wage Rate
A bipartisan Senate bill introduced by a couple of unlikely allies would freeze the Adverse Effect Wage Rate at last year’s level for the rest of 2023.
Sens. Jon Ossoff, D-Ga., and Thom Tillis, R-N.C., said farmers in their states who use the H-2A program are getting squeezed financially by increases in the AEWR. In Georgia, the rate went from $11.99 to $13.67 per hour this year, up 14% from 2022. The rate in North Carolina was set at $14.91 an hour, up 5%.
“I’m leading this bipartisan legislation to prevent damage to Georgia’s agricultural producers,” Ossoff said. Tillis said the wage rate “has long outpaced the rate of inflation and become unsustainable.”
Bipartisan, bicameral bill would expand AgARDA authorization
Ag groups and land-grant universities are backing a bill introduced by Sens. Michael Bennet, D-Colo., and Roger Marshall, R-Kan., to double the authorization of the Agriculture Advanced Research and Development Authority (AgARDA) from $50 million to $100 million.
The bill, which is expected to be joined by a companion in the House from Reps. Jimmy Panetta, D-Calif., and Randy Feenstra, R-Iowa, also would expand AgARDA’s scope to address animal and plant pathogens and pests.
The agency was authorized by the 2018 farm bill but has not been established yet because of limited funding.
More bills: Another bipartisan, bicameral bill would expand biochar research efforts. In the House, Iowa Republican Mariannette Miller-Meeks and Democrats Kim Schrier of Washington and Chellie Pingree of Maine have introduced the Biochar Research Network Act. In the Senate, Sens. Chuck Grassley, R-Iowa, Jon Tester, D-Mont., John Thune, R-S.D., and Sherrod Brown, D-Ohio, reintroduced companion legislation earlier this month.
Meanwhile, bills dropped by Republican Rep. Morgan Griffith of Virginia and Democratic Rep. Angie Craig of Minnesota would require the FDA to regulate hemp-derived cannabidiol, or CBD, as a dietary supplement and food and beverage additive.
Warnock: Debt relief 'can't come fast enough' for underserved farmers
Sen. Raphael Warnock, D-Ga. is urging USDA to act quickly on debt relief programs for economically challenged farmers who have historically been discriminated against.
“I will continue to hold USDA’s feet to the fire,” Warnock said on Agri-Pulse Newsmakers this week. “We passed the legislation, and now we’ve just got to make sure that we get people the resources they need.”
Relief "can't come fast enough" for farmers who experienced discrimination, he said.
The Inflation Reduction Act allocated $5.3 billion to farm debt relief in August 2022.
Read our full report at
He said it:
“This is a self-inflicted crisis of epic proportions that is putting lives on the line.” — Senate Minority Leader Brian Jones of San Diego, responding to Gov. Newsom’s announcement on Saturday of a new effort to lower healthcare costs.
Philip Brasher, Jacqui Fatka and Bill Tomson contributed to this report.
submitted by Catvac-u-um_adnase to newtimes [link] [comments]

2023.03.21 22:16 autobuzzfeedbot 21 Facts That Are So Interesting, I Know They Will Live In My Brain For All Of Eternity

  1. While Frank Sinatra's "New York, New York" is probably one of the crooner's best-known songs, it was originally very different. Turns out, we have Robert De Niro to thank for it! Composer John Kander and lyricist Fred Ebb were tapped to write music for Martin Scorsese's 1977 film, New York, New York, which stars Liza Minnelli and De Niro. When the duo previewed the songs they had written, De Niro thought the title track, which was connected to his character, was too lighthearted. Although Kander and Ebb said they thought De Niro seemed "pompous" in telling them to rewrite the song, they took the criticism to heart and ended up penning their new version of the song in just 45 minutes.
  2. Ferris Bueller's Day Off is my favorite movie of all time, so it's honestly criminal that I've never done a deep dive into some behind-the-scenes moments from the film! John Hughes, known for his teen movies, ended up writing the script in just a few days in order to get a draft finished before the Writers Guild of America went on strike. The script was reportedly so strong that it was barely edited before filming started. The movie is widely considered to be a love letter to Hughes's Chicago hometown and is filled with references to his own upbringing and shots of the city's skyline. In fact, Hughes even gave Ferris the same address as his childhood home, and his bedroom reportedly resembled Hughes's.
  3. If I had to learn about this giraffe mating ritual, then it's only fair that you do too, okay? Unlike other animals, giraffes don't have a set mating season. Instead, they have an estrous cycle, which resembles a human menstrual cycle, except this cycle swaps blood for urine. When a male giraffe approaches a female giraffe, he begins to rub against her, which she takes as a signal to begin peeing. The male giraffe then tastes her pee to see if she's fertile, and thus, the mating ritual begins. A typical giraffe pregnancy lasts for 400–460 days. Male giraffes typically have no role in raising their offspring.
  4. In 2007, Lisa Nowak became the first NASA astronaut to be arrested when she drove across the United States to confront a woman who was dating a fellow astronaut with whom Nowak had also had a relationship. About a decade after graduating from the US Naval Academy, Nowak was selected to be an astronaut at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, where she specialized in robotics. Nowak said she was deeply affected by the 2003 Columbia space shuttle explosion because her best friend, astronaut Laurel Clark, died. Nowak told NASA that her children convinced her to continue on with her space career despite her unease.
  5. Despite what you might believe after watching The Greatest Showman, P.T. Barnum was not a good guy. He had a long history of animal cruelty and was known for mistreating enslaved people and people with disabilities. He even reportedly hated the people who paid money to come see his exhibits. Barnum was allegedly frustrated that people were taking their time during visits to his museum, so he decided to post signs reading "This Way to the Egress" all over the place. He (correctly) believed that most of the visitors wouldn't know that "egress" meant "exit," so when they followed the signs, they ended up unknowingly leaving the entire museum. As a result, many people paid to reenter, bringing home even more money for Barnum.
  6. Billy Joel's "We Didn't Start the Fire" is essentially History 101 in song form. The track name-drops 118 historical events from 1949 to 1989, including everything from pivotal moments in the civil rights movement to details from sports and pop culture history. Joel was inspired to write the song after having a conversation with Sean Lennon, who was then in his 20s, while in the recording studio. One of Lennon's friends allegedly said that it was a terrible time to be a young person. Joel, who was about to turn 40, reportedly said that his own younger years hadn't been that easy either.
  7. Coney Island's skyline looked a lot different back in the 1800s. The Brooklyn boardwalk was once home to a 200-foot-tall elephant-shaped hotel! The hotel, known as the Elephantine Colossus, was built in 1885 and contained 31 rooms, a concert hall, and a museum. The elephant's head housed an observatory, and its eyes served as telescopes. The real kicker was that the hotel was built several years before the Statue of Liberty was completed, so the giant elephant was often the first thing immigrants saw when they reached New York. At some point, the hotel was seen as gimmicky and lost most of its clientele. Soon, sex workers began moving in. In 1896, Elephantine Colossus burned down and was never rebuilt.
  8. During Ronald Reagan's 1966 California gubernatorial campaign, he began eating jelly beans in an attempt to curb his pipe-smoking habit. His jelly beans of choice were the Goelitz Mini Jelly Beans from the Herman Goelitz Candy Co. Once the company caught wind of Reagan's love for the treat, they began to send the politician a monthly shipment of candy and even gifted the governor with a custom jelly bean jar. After Reagan's two terms as governor ended, the company continued to send him jelly beans. In 1976, Goelitz debuted their latest creation: the Jelly Belly. Within two years, Reagan's entire jelly bean shipment shifted to include only Jelly Belly jelly beans.
  9. There are two main groups of whales: baleen whales, which include species like the blue whale and the humpback whale; and toothed whales, consisting of orcas, belugas, and sperm whales. While you probably guessed that toothed whales are named as such because they have teeth, baleen whales have baleen plates in their mouths, which help them filter out krill and other food. Toothed whales also have a "melon" in their foreheads. The melon is a mass of tissue that helps with communication and is crucial for echolocation, which they use to find food and to navigate underwater.
  10. In 1997, construction on Disneyland's California Adventure Park was halted after Princess Diana was killed in a limo accident in a Paris tunnel on Aug. 31. California Adventure was supposed to include a ride called Superstar Limo, which involved guests boarding a limo and embarking on a high-speed chase through some of Los Angeles's biggest landmarks in order to get to the Disney offices in time to sign a huge movie contract. Riders also had to evade the paparazzi. Once the ride ended, passengers were encouraged to buy mock tabloids featuring the pictures the "paparazzi" had taken of them. Following Diana's death, Disney knew they could no longer debut the ride. Soon, they began to brainstorm alternative ideas to replace the limo theme.
  11. Donald Gorske, who is known as the ultimate Big Mac fan, has reportedly eaten at least one McDonald's Big Mac every day for the past 50 years. As of May 2022, Gorske believes he has consumed about 32,340 Big Macs. He told Guinness World Records that he typically eats two Big Macs a day, although he revealed that at one point, his daily diet included nine burgers! "May 17, 1972, was the day I got my first car," Gorske said. "I drove to McDonald’s, ordered my first three Big Macs, went in the car, and ate them. And I said right there that I’m gonna probably eat these the rest of my life, and I threw the cartons in the backseat and started counting them from day one." Despite his Big Mac diet, Gorske and his wife say that doctors have given him a clean bill of health.
  12. Although you probably picture Queen Elizabeth II wearing one of her signature colorful skirt suits, her fashion history is actually quite fascinating! Elizabeth was photographed wearing pants only once during her entire reign. In 1970, she was reportedly interested in updating her look, and asked her tailor for a custom pantsuit to wear during her royal tour in Australia. It's safe to assume that Elizabeth wasn't too fond of the outfit, as she was never again seen wearing pants in public. In order to maintain professionalism and avoid any type of fashion mishap, her dress hems were always cut below the knee.
  13. In 1986, Clint Eastwood ran for mayor of Carmel, California, in part because he wanted to overturn the town's strict law regarding ice cream sales. Eastwood announced his intention to run for office in 1985 after he reportedly found the City Council very difficult to work with when he wanted to turn property he owned into office space. He also cited a 1929 law in Carmel that banned the sale of ice cream cones as another reason for his campaign. In April 1986, he defeated incumbent Charlotte Townsend. His first order of business? He removed from office all of the people who supported the ice cream ban, thus allowing the sale of ice cream cones in Carmel for the first time in decades.
  14. Chances are, you read George Orwell's Animal Farm in school. In the novel, a group of animals team up to rebel against the farmer who owns them, only to end up living in a communist dictatorship led by pigs. Although Orwell said that the book was the first time he had successfully been able to blend politics and art, he had a hard time finding a publisher. Several publishing houses turned down the book because they felt uneasy about its political stance. Secker & Warburg ultimately agreed to publish Animal Farm, and the book became a hit and was even used by the CIA as a propaganda tool during the Cold War.
  15. In 1928, Huey Long was elected governor of Louisiana on a promise of helping people who had been neglected by the federal government. He soon had his sights set on Washington and won a Senate seat. But before leaving for DC in 1932, he had the lieutenant governor replaced by two successors who promised to follow Long's commands. In the Senate, he created the “Share Our Wealth” program, which many thought was part of his bid for the presidency. In 1935, Long was assassinated by a political rival. Despite his death, his impact in the state lived on. In 1940, a study showed that rural schoolchildren not only had no idea that Long had been killed but also believed he was president.
  16. The Real Housewives franchise put Bravo on the map for its depiction of the wild and wacky antics of wealthy women around the country, but it originally looked like a much different show! Scott Dunlop, the original producer of the Real Housewives of Orange County, got the idea for the show in 1986 when he moved from Los Angeles to Coto de Caza, one of the world's largest gated communities, located in Orange County, California. Dunlop began to notice that many of his female neighbors spent their days shopping and playing golf while their husbands went to work.
  17. The first meal eaten on the moon included bacon bits, peaches, sugar cookie cubes, and a pineapple-grapefruit beverage. Bacon reportedly had a long history when it came to space travel. It was a staple during the Gemini missions and became a favorite among many astronauts. Despite all of the bacon love, it's since disappeared from space menus. Now the closest thing to bacon is a sausage patty that has to be rehydrated with warm water before being eaten.
  18. Oscar Gamble, a baseball player who spent over 20 years in the major leagues, was known not only for his on-field play but also for his Afro, which sparked quite the controversy. In 1973, Gamble arrived at the Cleveland Indians training camp sporting an Afro. Although many Black basketball players had Afros, the hairstyle wasn't too popular among baseball players. Baseball was often seen as more conservative, and during the 1970s, the Afro was associated with the Black Power movement. Gamble's hair quickly became controversial. "People took one look at that hair and thought I was a bad guy," Gamble said in 1979. "There were some sportswriters who wouldn’t talk to me. They thought I was some kind of militant, with my beard and my hair."
  19. In December 1990, Iben Browning, who claimed that he was a climatologist, predicted that a major earthquake was going to hit the St. Louis area on Dec. 3. In New Madrid, a Missouri town located on a fault line, people began stockpiling supplies, while others left town completely. Browning reportedly used weather patterns to make his predictions, although his exact methods were never publicized. Although scientists didn't vocally deny Browning's claims, it was believed that they didn't support his prediction, since it's impossible to predict an earthquake. The earthquake never happened. In fact, the area has not faced an earthquake at the magnitude Browning predicted in the three decades since.
  20. While kangaroos are known for their hopping abilities (they can jump about 25 feet in one go!), they are unable to go backward because their big feet and long tails prohibit any backward movement. This anatomical hindrance has since been used by their native Australia as a symbol. The kangaroo was reportedly included on the Australian coat of arms to represent the idea that Australia is a nation that is always moving forward.
  21. And finally, Elouise Cobell, who was also known as Yellow Bird Woman, fought for Native Americans to have control over their land and finances. Cobell was born on the Blackfeet Reservation in Montana, where her family did not have running water or electricity. Her great-great-grandfather notably stood up to the US government in the 19th century. When Cobell was 4 years old, her father built a one-room schoolhouse that she attended until she was in high school. Cobell reportedly took notice of her family's complaints about the Bureau of Indian Affairs, an agency that many suspected mismanaged the profits from land and trusts owned by Native Americans.
Link to article
submitted by autobuzzfeedbot to buzzfeedbot [link] [comments]

2023.03.21 21:12 bostonshopper Update: After visiting Boston in October, the RMV is giving me until Friday to register my car in MA, or I'll lose my driver's license. The only catch? I don't live, work, or have an address in MA... so I can't get insured or register here. And the RMV won't call me back. Anyone got a contact?

Update: After visiting Boston in October, the RMV is giving me until Friday to register my car in MA, or I'll lose my driver's license. The only catch? I don't live, work, or have an address in MA... so I can't get insured or register here. And the RMV won't call me back. Anyone got a contact? submitted by bostonshopper to boston [link] [comments]

2023.03.21 21:12 billhartzer Did You Ever Get a Fake Invoice in the Mail for Web Hosting?

Did you ever get a fake invoice in the mail for web hosting services? Well this was probably the guy who sent it.

Florida Man Indicted for Far-Reaching Mail Fraud Scheme

CONTACT: Michael Martel TITLE: National Public Information Officer EMAIL: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
New York, NY – On March 8, 2023, Robert W. Lederhilger, III, was arrested and arraigned in the Middle District of Florida following a Federal Grand Jury Mail Fraud indictment handed down just days earlier in the Southern District of New York. Lederhilger, a Florida resident, was charged in connection with orchestrating a sweeping, almost eight-year scheme that defrauded tens of thousands of U.S. businesses in almost every state in the country.
The indictment charges that, since about March 2015, Mr. Lederhilger carried out mass mailings of deceptive invoices to small business website owners.
Using several business names, such as “Web Host Agents,” “Certified Web Services,” and “FreeBird Host,” Lederhilger claimed the targeted businesses owed up to $192 for a “yearly webhosting fee.” In truth, the business websites were usually already hosted on other webhosting platforms, and Lederhilger never provided nor intended to provide such services.
To affect this scheme, Lederhilger used a mailbox service in Manhattan, New York, to receive the victim business checks and deposit them into his company bank accounts. Lederhilger also orchestrated a “Reseller Program,” where he recruited others to form LLCs and “sell” his purported webhosting services on his behalf. These “resellers,” considered victims in the scheme, were unaware Lederhilger was not providing webhosting services.
The resellers were required to pay Lederhilger approximately 44% of collected webhosting fees, cover the cost of printing deceptive mailings, pay for centralized mailbox services to receive victim business checks, pay wages of back-office support staff, and pay Lederhilger for a monthly leads list. As a result, over 3 million deceptive mailings were mailed to businesses across the United States, resulting in approximately 38,000 victim-business payments to the Lederhilger and reseller companies, totaling approximately $7 million paid for services not rendered.
“The U.S. Mail has been a cornerstone of American commerce since the nation’s founding,” said Inspector in Charge Daniel Brubaker with the Postal Inspection Service’s New York Division. “Postal Inspectors are committed to uncovering and investigating schemes, like this one, that use the mail to target U.S. businesses and customers.”
Mr. Lederhilger was released on bail following his arrest and is scheduled to appear in New York later this week to face charges. As of this release, a trial date for Mr. Lederhilger has not been set.
If found guilty, he faces up to 30 years in federal prison.
It is important to note that an indictment contains charges that are only allegations against a person. Every defendant is presumed innocent unless or until proven guilty.
submitted by billhartzer to webhosting [link] [comments]

2023.03.21 18:47 bigalphamale789 6 Potential Benefits of Berberine You Should Know About

Potential benefits of berberine

It’s no wonder berberine has stood the test of time. It’s a promising treatment for a variety of health ailments.
“Berberine is also quite antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory, and it is used to treat bacteria, fungus, parasites, viruses, and other microbes,” says Rosia Parrish, a licensed naturopathic doctor and functional medicine specialist at Boulder Natural Health in Boulder, Colorado.
Because it has antimicrobial properties, berberine has an effect on the digestive tract.
“Plus, it helps with bile and bilirubin secretion,” says Parrish. Bile is a fluid released from the liver to aid in digestion. The waste product bilirubin is a pigment found in bile.

Lower blood sugar

One in 10 people in the United States has diabetes, 90 to 95 percent of whom have type 2.
Recent studies on the potential health effects of berberine have caught the attention of health care professionals and people looking for natural ways to treat diabetes.
“It seems that berberine may slightly reduce blood glucose levels and may be as effective as [the diabetes drug] metformin,” says Dana Hunnes, a senior dietitian at the Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center and professor at the Fielding School of Public Health in Los Angeles.
In a 2018 Oncotarget review, researchers found berberine could be an effective treatment for people with type 2 diabetes. Its blood sugar-lowering effects, they wrote, were comparable to metformin, a common drug prescribed to regulate high blood sugar.
An earlier meta-analysis found berberine to be just as potent a glucose-lowering therapy as prescription meds like Avandia and Glucotrol.
Take all of this with a grain of salt, though. Many of the studies on berberine and diabetes are reviews of previously published studies, not randomized, controlled trials that put berberine head to head with a diabetes medication. The few studies we do have are fairly small, so it’s hard to say for sure whether the supplement can really help.
More research is needed, but the researchers say a combination of berberine and metformin might allow a reduction in the dosage of each drug and have fewer side effects from using one or the other drug.
Before you try berberine, you’ll need to talk to your doctor—especially if you take insulin. You want to be sure you don’t experience low blood sugar as a result.
(Check out 10 more promising herbs and supplements for diabetes.)

Lower cholesterol

Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, and high cholesterol is a major culprit.
When fatty deposits build up from high cholesterol, they can cause clogged arteries and impede blood flow to the heart and body. Lowering cholesterol assists in fighting heart disease.
Studies have shown that berberine can help reduce cholesterol levels in some individuals.
In a study in Phytomedicine, obese participants were given 500 milligrams of berberine three times a day for 12 weeks. The results revealed a reduction in blood lipid levels and mild weight loss.
This is just one study, of course. Researchers will need to conduct more human studies to determine whether the supplement can really lower cholesterol. But it’s a promising sign that berberine may help you keep your ticker healthy.
For people who don’t tolerate statins, the most common type of drug for treating high cholesterol, berberine may be a safe alternative to consider.

Prevent recurring UTIs and cystitis

Berberine might help women avoid the pain and burning of recurring urinary tract infections (UTIs) and bladder inflammation known as cystitis.
“I typically use it for infections, including urinary tract infections and cystitis,” says Parrish.
In a 2018 randomized controlled trial, published in the Journal of Chemotherapy, a combination of different plant extracts (including berberine) was used to evaluate the effectiveness in preventing the recurrence of UTIs. Group A received berberine, arbutin, and birch.
Meanwhile, Group B got berberine, arbutin, birch, and forskolin. Group C received proanthocyanidins, plant compounds that researchers believe are responsible for cranberry juice’s ability to treat UTIs.
Participants in the groups A and B had a lower number of recurrent cystitis during treatment and follow-up, with a lower median bacterial load than the Group C.

Lose weight

Maintaining a healthy weight protects us from heart disease, type 2 diabetes, stroke, osteoarthritis, and certain types of cancer. Berberine may help with weight loss and assist in shrinking belly fat.
In a small study published in the journal Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 37 men and women with metabolic syndrome took 300 milligrams of berberine three times a day for three months.
At the end of the study, their body mass indexes (BMIs) dropped from an obese range to an overweight range. They also lost an average of two inches around their waists.
Again, this study had limitations, including its small sample size. Further research is needed, particiularly with larger groups, to validate the findings.
Overweight or obese people may want to try berberine in conjunction with a healthy diet and exercise regimen to enhance weight loss. Just know that you won’t be able to pop a supplement and lose the weight quickly.

Find digestive relief

The anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial aspects of berberine may support the gut microbiome of people with gastrointestinal ailments, diarrhea, and bacterial overgrowth due to irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, and other inflammatory bowel diseases.
In a randomized, placebo-controlled study published in Phytotherapy Research, patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome took 400 milligrams of berberine a day for eight weeks, resulting in improvements in diarrhea frequency and urgency, and abdominal pain.
Parrish says she prescribes berberine for digestive microbial imbalances when treating small intestinal bacterial overgrowth or pathogenic digestive bacteria.

May help prevent certain cancers

Supplemental berberine might reduce colorectal polyps, according to a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial published in 2020 in The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology.
The study included nearly 900 people in China between the ages of 18 to 75 who had polyps removed during a colonoscopy. (Most intestinal polyps are benign, but some can become cancerous.)
After the procedure, the people were randomly assigned to take 300 milligrams of berberine twice daily or a placebo, and followed up one and two years later.
None of the participants developed colorectal cancer during the study, but those taking berberine had fewer recurrent polyps (36 percent) compared with placebo takers (47 percent).
According to the researchers, berberine could be a low-cost and safe option to help prevent colorectal cancer. Also, no serious side effects were reported.
How do people use berberine?
Berberine is available as an extract and in powder or capsule form. (Parrish prefers the capsules.)
Most of the time, berberine supplements include other botanicals and herbs aimed at treating a given condition. For example, people with diabetes might buy a berberine supplement with cinnamon, which has been associated with lowering blood sugar.
“Many herbs have synergistic effects when taken together, so I may use more than one ingredient to create a botanical supplement blend,” Parrish says.
Numerous studies on berberine cite dosages between 900 to 1,500 milligrams per day. Typically, the dosage is 500 milligrams, three times per day.
Even with the study recommendations, you should ask your primary health care provider if berberine is safe and how much you should use.
“If you get the green light from your doctor, look for a third-party certification from NSF International, UL, or NSF on the label,” Parrish suggests. Since supplements aren’t reviewed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), third-party certification is one way to ensure safety.
She also advises making an appointment with a naturopathic doctor who knows your complete medical history and will work alongside your primary care physician.

Risks or side effects

As with any supplement or medication, some side effects might occur.
Studies note berberine is generally well-tolerated.
However, some people may experience headaches, skin irritation, nausea, cramping, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, or a slow heart rate if berberine is taken in high doses.

Talk to your doctor.

Parrish stresses the importance of talking to your physician before taking berberine.
“Berberine has a number of interactions with pharmaceutical drugs, other botanical medicine, so please work with a doctor to ensure proper monitoring,” she says.

Watch your blood sugar levels.

Berberine has the capacity to lower blood sugar, but there’s a risk of your levels going too low, especially if you are already taking prescription diabetes medicines like insulin.
Hypoglycemia is a dangerous health condition that occurs when sugar levels dip too low.
If you have diabetes, you’ll want to regularly check your blood sugar to make sure it’s not dipping too low. And anyone who takes berberine will want to keep an eye on their blood sugar levels with regular lab tests.
“It is important to monitor with labs to ensure people are in a healthy range and not lowering their levels too much,” advises Parrish.

Don’t take when pregnant.

Due to the lack of studies, Parrish says pregnant women should avoid berberine.

Should you use berberine?

When it comes to using berberine for weight loss, lowering blood sugar, or improving cholesterol, Hunnes says your best chance of improving your overall health is to eat a plant-based diet.
“People who eat a whole-foods, plant-based diet have a lower BMI and weight, have lower blood glucose levels, lower cholesterol levels, and can prevent and reverse certain chronic diseases, including hypertension, diabetes, and coronary heart disease,” she says. “The data is very strong to support this. The data for supplements is very weak in comparison.”
Berberine may be something worth trying when dealing with recurring UTIs or frequent diarrhea in bowel diseases.

Top 5 Berberine Supplements of 2023

submitted by bigalphamale789 to Berberine [link] [comments]

2023.03.21 18:32 Audioboxer87 Do you think Tony Blair, Prime Minister at the time of the war, deliberately set out to mislead the British public in the run-up to the war about whether Iraq possessed chemical and biological ‘weapons of mass destruction’? Scotland Yes 48% No 23% Don't Know 29%

Do you think Tony Blair, Prime Minister at the time of the war, deliberately set out to mislead the British public in the run-up to the war about whether Iraq possessed chemical and biological ‘weapons of mass destruction’? Scotland Yes 48% No 23% Don't Know 29% submitted by Audioboxer87 to Scotland [link] [comments]

2023.03.21 17:48 nanatsu-no-taiza Apprenticeship question, are these hours the tiered classes trade school provides or just something else sorry for dumb question all new to this

Apprenticeship question, are these hours the tiered classes trade school provides or just something else sorry for dumb question all new to this submitted by nanatsu-no-taiza to Plumbing [link] [comments]

2023.03.21 16:00 _call-me-al_ [Tue, Mar 21 2023] TL;DR — This is what you missed in the last 24 hours on Reddit

If you want to receive this as a daily email in your inbox, you can now join at this link


Scientists deliver ‘final warning’ on climate crisis: act now or it’s too late
Comments Link
Kazachstan seizes Russian space base
Comments Link
Explosions destroy Russian cruise missile shipment in Crimea
Comments Link


Carson Briere charged for pushing woman's wheelchair down steps
Comments Link
Fox News producer files explosive lawsuits against the network, alleging she was coerced into providing misleading Dominion testimony
Comments Link
Trump seeks to block Georgia election interference criminal charges
Comments Link


Managers Exploit Loyal Workers Over Less Committed Colleagues
Comments Link
Deadly drug-resistant yeast gained ground, more drug resistance amid Covid. Candida auris is considered an "urgent threat" and is rising fast.
Comments Link
Pandemic lowered US step count and Americans haven't bounced back, study says
Comments Link


A Hollywood sci-fi prop shop became the best kept secret in aerospace. Because everything at Norton was in fact real—decommissioned engines, solenoids, and avionics units. Entrepreneurs realized reverse engineering these artifacts from NASA's golden age could give them an edge over the competition.
Comments Link
Calls for ban on light-polluting mass satellite groups like Elon Musk’s Starlink Satellites
Comments Link
NASA teams connect all major structures of rocket core stage for Artemis II
Comments Link


OpenAI CEO Sam Altman warns that other A.I. developers working on ChatGPT-like tools won’t put on safety limits—and the clock is ticking
Comments Link
10 months after its launch by SpaceX, a $10,000 satellite made by students with off-the-shelf materials and powered by 48 Energizer AA batteries, is not only working, it's demonstrating a way to reduce space junk
Comments Link
UN climate report: Scientists release 'survival guide' to avert climate disaster
Comments Link


If Trump is arrested, how do you think his supporters will react?
Comments Link
What is the best comeback that works against all insults?
Comments Link
What is your first impression when you hear someone saying "I go to therapy"?
Comments Link


TIL Iceland has no McDonald's restaurants anywhere in the country. McDonald's left Iceland on 30 October 2009, as a result of the 2008–2011 Icelandic financial crisis and high import tariff on imported ingredients which required the prices of their products to increase.
Comments Link
TIL that Icelandic Air allows up to a 7 day layover in Iceland at no additional cost
Comments Link
TIL that if you have a kid in the 4th grade your entire family can get into National Parks free for a whole year!
Comments Link


[OC] My 2-month long job search as a Software Engineer with 4 YEO
Comments Link
[OC] Apple Services is a gigantic business now
Comments Link
The men's Sweet 16 field since 2000 visualized as the sum of total seeds [OC]
Comments Link


What mediocre food opinions will you live and die by?
Comments Link
I spent 8 hours making pasta sauce from scratch and its slightly less good than store premade and for 4 times more expensive. Is MFS pasta sauce still worth trying to do?
Comments Link
What is your family's "Dad Dish"?
Comments Link


Chicken Katsu Curry [homemade]
Comments Link
[homemade] Tim Horton’s iced Capp cake I made!
Comments Link
Steak and Cheese [homemade]
Comments Link


New Jordan Peele Movie Set for Christmas Day 2024 Release From Universal
Comments Link
Paul Grant, Character Actor Known for ‘Star Wars’ and ‘Harry Potter,’ Dies at 56
Comments Link
Official Poster for Broken Lizard's 'Quasi'
Comments Link


Enlightenment, me, air-dry clay, 2022
Comments Link
The Traveller, me, digital, 2023
Comments Link
Unnamed, me, Monster Clay, 2023
Comments Link


Amanda Bynes Placed on Psychiatric Hold, Found Naked and Roaming Streets
Comments Link
Andy Kaufman to Be Inducted Into WWE Hall of Fame
Comments Link
‘Everything Everywhere’ Filmmakers Daniels Working On ‘Star Wars’ Series ‘Skeleton Crew’
Comments Link


Palestinian farmer holding a 117 years old proof of land ownership that belonged to his grandfather
Comments Link
Someone left a door on the beach
Comments Link
Update on dumpster dog. He spent the night with my grandma and her pups. Getting scanned tomorrow.
Comments Link


The handmaid's tale protest in Israel
Comments Link
If you hug one of us, you have to hug all of us!
Comments Link
Paper airplane vortices
Comments Link


How a decorative glass plate is made -
Comments Link


Dicks gave me 3 hour only coupon after making an exchange
Comments Link
This Dunkin Donuts that used to be a bank
Comments Link
Just a photo of me wielding a huge icicle.
Comments Link


A human vs dolphin brain
Comments Link
Lab grown diamonds, before they are cut and polished
Comments Link
George W Bush being informed about the 9/11 attacks
Comments Link


Letter of resignation
Comments Link
Just kept getting better
Comments Link
Happy to be here sir
Comments Link


Dramatic opossum plays dead in the dinner bowl
Comments Link
pupper's first bath!! :3
Comments Link
My four dogs this morning on my personal Stairway to Heaven
Comments Link
Get this as a daily email!
submitted by _call-me-al_ to RedditTLDR [link] [comments]

2023.03.21 14:11 kirtash93 [LONG READ] TIL: Origin of Cryptocurrencies and Bitcoin. Crypto the Next Financial Era.

[LONG READ] TIL: Origin of Cryptocurrencies and Bitcoin. Crypto the Next Financial Era.
First of all, sorry for this really long post. I decided to do this post to put some perspective that financial system has always been evolving and that we are probably witnessing this evolution right now.
It really took me a lot of effort to gather all this information and then gathering together to create a consistent post. I hope you enjoy it. Thanks in advance.

What is Bitcoin?

Understanding what Bitcoin is use to be a hard for a lot of people because of its technical nature.. However, talking about Bitcoin is discussing about the future because as we have seen until now, this is just the tip of the iceberg of the new financial era.

Definition of "Money"

"Money" is a symbolic concep that has not an intrinsic value in itself. It's value comes from what value people gives to a grain of rice, a piece of metal or paper. Money value is based in its use of case as trading way, posesion unity and store of value. It is important to say that "money" and "currency" are not identical terms because money is intangible while currency is tangible. Sadly during the time this two concepts have been merged to represent value.

Brief Chronology of Money

During the Neolithic, barter was used as the first form of exchange where the direct negotiation of goods or services were the concept of value and the emergence of "money".
In 3000-2500 BC, standards of value were created like weight and quantity to make trading easier. This was used to exchange salt, rice, etc.
In 1000 BC, the first coins were created in China replacing large metallic objects called "seashells" which were used to exchange.
Chinese Coin
In 700-600 BC, the first coins were created in Lydia (current Turkey) and later in Persia and Greece spreading them through Europe and Asia.
Lydya Coin
In the 9th century AD, paper money was created in China calling it "bill" and like coins it represented an amount of money.
In the 16th century AD, paper money was created and expanded in Europe. In this moment terms like "certificate," "bills," and "promissory note" became common when depositing amounts in banks.
European paper money
Between the years 1250-1400, the commercialized bank debt crystallized, a set of loans or obligated payment commitments between two entities, such as people, companies, institutions or countries.
Between 1800-1900, gold standard appeared as a standard of support for any citizen who could convert paper money to an amount of gold. The main European central banks were established and the Fed was created in the United States.
After World War II, in the 1940s, gold standard started to go down and fiat money surged backed by the state statement and credit trust. Because of fiat devaluations and inflation perception about the value of money has changed being only the dollar the only want that maintained the gold standard and became the dominant currency in the internationally.
In 1971, gold standard on the dollar crashed and since that moment US joined "fiat" team and still being the reference internationally. Backing with gold ended and was replaced by faith and credit on the US gov.
In God We Trust
In this moment, money is based on trust and its value is based on purchase power. Money rises if there is interaction between goods and services, the need of them, etc. Basically, it has value because we want it.
In this moment is when the party starts giving the government the ability to print unlimited paper money without being backed by gold which is an immense risk for financial system as we have been seeing all this time.
Brrrrrr does not fix a true economy.
In the 1950s and 1960s, ERMA (Electronic Recording Machine, Accounting), first computerized machine for banking purposes, and the MICR (Magnetic-Ink Character Recognition) system were developed.
In the 1970s, Mainframes were implemented as operational support for data processing and transactions at a local, regional and international level.
In the 1980s, a teletext device that allowed interactive consultation of various services called Minitel. In 1982, David Chaum presented the main seed for the creation of a digital currency called "Blind Signatures for Untraceable Payments", the first public member of CypherPunk, a digital activism focused on protecting the privacy and security of users using technology.
In the 1990s, Chaum founded DigiCash, the first electronic currency that allowed anonymous payments untraceable by issuing banks, the government or third parties, but the project did not attract much interest from companies and investors. Instead, E-Gold was hailed as the first digital currency system, allowing payments without a credit card and enabling a wide range of online services, but due to the vulnerability and insecurity of the system, cybercrime led it to its final closure in 2007.
With the rise of Internet and eCommerce in the 90s, Paypal appeared allowing fast transfers of digital money by email and also WebMoney, the biggest payment processors in Russia.
Paypal and WebMoney
Between 1997 and 2007, there were some developments that can be considered the prelude of Bitcoin. In 1997, Adam Black developed HashCash, a cryptographic protocol to stop mass spam being sent to mail servers. This protocol used a small "computational overhead" to send and email which implied an extra computational cost. This helped to create Proof of Work (PoW) protocol.
In 1998, Wei Dai created B-Money, a system of value exchange and contract enforcement between anonymous participants bto provide non-traceable services through decentralized transactions and protect the privacy of each participant in a network. This helped to create Proof of Stake (PoS) protocol later.
In 2004, Hal Finney published his review of Adam Back's HashCash, Reusable Proof of Work (RPoW), which focused on the creation of unique but reusable cryptographic tokens as a process of proofing and issuing digital currencies. However, the validation and protection against the double spend issue was still logged on a trusted central server.
In 2005, Nick Zsabo proposed Bit Gold, a project he had been working on since 1998. Zsabo pioneered "smart contracts" and focused on designing e-commerce protocols between anonymous participants in a network. The project was based on privacy, a decentralized system, and PoW features. However, the project was never carried out due to certain gaps that had not yet been resolved, such as the double spending issue and an efficient mechanism for Bit Gold unit capping.
In 2008, a mysterious character appears under the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto, announcing the creation of an electronic currency which he called "Bitcoin". He corresponds with Adam Back, Wei Dai, and Hal Finney, sending the latter a copy of the source code for testing purposes.
Satoshi Nakamoto message
In 2009, the first transaction of the first Bitcoin is launched, in which Nakamoto sends it to Finney, making him the first "bitcoiner". The test has been a success and one year later the capitalization of Bitcoin acquires a value that exceeds a million dollars in the market.
Not Real Satoshi Nakamoto
TLDR; Crypto is the next financial era.
If you have reached this point. You are a hero. Thank you very much for reading this post again. It took me a long afternoon to learn all of this to put it later in a post.
Thanks again!
Source: Mainly
submitted by kirtash93 to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

2023.03.21 10:33 take_eacy 2023-03-17 Massachusetts COVID daily data report: 456 new cases, 7 new deaths, 8994 individuals tested

Daily MA Covid Numbers reported from 2023-03-17:
Individuals who tested positive: 456 (2023-03-17)
Data from 7d prior for reference: 513 (2023-03-10)
Total individuals who tested: 8994 (2023-03-17)
Data from 7d prior for reference: 10175 (2023-03-10)
Deaths: 7 (2023-03-17)
Data from 7d prior for reference: 7 (2023-03-10)
This is an automated post using data drawn from the Chapter93 State Numbers Daily Report file. This data is still being reported daily on weekdays by It is important to note that these are reports of cases, tests, and deaths -- NOT the actual definitive count. These numbers are often revised post-hoc, but this is the hot-off-the-press daily number given by the state (which I report the following morning).
The test counts (total and positive only) include all test types that are reported that day. An individual who takes multiple tests of different types in one day is only counted once. The death counts can differ from the dashboard since the death counts reported here are not finalized (dashboard numbers are finalized). Deaths which are reported on Friday are rolled into Monday's reported numbers. Deaths reported from Saturday, Sunday, and Monday are rolled into Tuesday's reported numbers.
Because of these peculiarities in reporting, I only show the data from 7d prior as a reference point. I defer graphical representation of COVID data to oldgrimalkin's beautiful visualizations.
submitted by take_eacy to CoronavirusMa [link] [comments]

2023.03.21 09:59 Captainmanic how could the study of black holes lead to better chances of detecting enemy stealth bombers?

That's an interesting question. I don't know if there is a definitive answer, but I can try to explain some possible connections between black holes and stealth bombers.
Black holes are extremely dense objects that have such strong gravity that nothing, not even light, can escape from them³. However, black holes are not completely invisible. They can be detected by their effects on the surrounding matter and radiation⁷.
One of the methods to detect black holes is gravitational lensing⁶. This is when the gravity of a black hole bends space-time and the light coming from behind it. This creates a distorted image of the background objects that can be observed by telescopes. For example, a black hole can make a galaxy appear as a ring or an arc around it.
Another method to detect black holes is accretion disks and jets⁶. This is when the black hole attracts dust and gas from nearby space and forms a disk around it. The matter in the disk is heated up by friction and emits X-rays that can be detected by X-ray telescopes. Sometimes, some of the matter escapes from the disk and shoots out as jets of particles at high speeds.
A third method to detect black holes is stars orbiting black holes⁶. This is when a star is close enough to a black hole that it orbits around it. The star's motion can be measured by its Doppler shift or its gravitational waves. The Doppler shift is when the star's light changes color depending on whether it is moving towards or away from us. The gravitational waves are ripples in space-time caused by massive objects accelerating.
Now, how could these methods help with detecting enemy stealth bombers? Stealth bombers are designed to avoid detection by radar and other electromagnetic sensors by having special shapes and materials that absorb or scatter radio waves¹². However, they still have mass and gravity, which means they could potentially affect light and space-time around them.
One possibility is that stealth bombers could create gravitational lensing effects on the background stars or other objects. If we had sensitive enough telescopes that could observe these distortions, we might be able to locate them.
Another possibility is that stealth bombers could emit X-rays or other radiation due to their engines or weapons systems. If we had sensitive enough X-ray telescopes that could detect these emissions, we might be able to locate them.
A third possibility is that stealth bombers could create Doppler shifts or gravitational waves due to their motion through space. If we had sensitive enough instruments that could measure these changes in frequency or space-time, we might be able to locate them.
Of course, these possibilities are very speculative and depend on many factors such as distance, speed, size, shape, orientation, environment etc. It might also require very advanced technology that does not exist yet or is impractical for military purposes.
So I would say that studying black holes might give us some insights into how gravity affects light and space-time but it might not directly lead to better chances of detecting enemy stealth bombers.
Source: Conversation with Bing, 3/21/2023(1) 10 Questions You Might Have About Black Holes. Accessed 3/21/2023. (2) Black Holes Science Mission Directorate - NASA. Accessed 3/21/2023. (3) What methods can astronomers use to find a black hole?. Accessed 3/21/2023. (4) New B-21 stealth bomber is unveiled: What did we see?. Accessed 3/21/2023. (5) US Air Force B-2 stealth bomber is caught on Google Earth. Accessed 3/21/2023. (6) Here's What Everyone Forgot About The B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber - HotCars. Accessed 3/21/2023. (7) Types Black Holes – NASA Universe Exploration. Accessed 3/21/2023. (8) Scientific methods to detect black holes Accessed 3/21/2023. (9) How are black holes detected? Cool Cosmos. Accessed 3/21/2023.
submitted by Captainmanic to SpacePolicy [link] [comments]

2023.03.21 09:00 AutoModerator Boston Daily Discussion Thread, Tuesday March 21

Hey Boston
This thread is for chatting about what is going on in Boston today. This includes the news about today's commute, what is going on around Boston, commonly asked questions, as well as a general free chat throughout the day.
Example topics include:
Here are some useful links as well:
  1. The weather
  2. MBTA alerts and delays
  3. Official COVID-19 Information
Please be civil and keep things SFW.
Self promotion of Boston related events, activities, and news is allowed so long as the event is happening within the next 5 days and not a regularly occurring event.
If there is something you'd like to see here please message the moderators and let us know.
submitted by AutoModerator to boston [link] [comments]

2023.03.21 02:13 DivineinArt ALL IN ONE SHOT MAP & THEORY: Amherst Motel, ATM, Insurance forms, bottle return & liquor.

ALL IN ONE SHOT MAP & THEORY: Amherst Motel, ATM, Insurance forms, bottle return & liquor.
SPECULATION: Maura's friend/BF is from out-of-town & stays at the Amherst Motel when he comes to visit. Looking at the available & detailed phone records that begin on January 23rd, 2004 we can see that Maura never called Dominos prior to January 31st, this might suggest that he arrived in town on that evening after finishing work/classes & was off until the next Tuesday. Someone calls Maura at the security desk from an internal line & Maura fakes a breakdown shortly after (to get off work as per her sister Kathleen.) Maura is let off work but declines KM's invitation to go to Dunkin's & lies to her by saying she's got a roommate. Shortly afterwards at 3:40 A.M. she calls Domino's.
Why would she call her friend/BF at Domino's during after-hours if he's from out of town? It might be to hide his identity. If he got a call on the phone in his room or his cell phone, he could later be identified. If Maura & him were planning to start a new life together, this would leave no clues.
It's possible he grabbed the key on a prior occasion without the owner's knowledge, copied it & then returned it the same day. If he's the one who stole the cc number given to Maura, he'd be capable of copying the key. Once he has the key & sees the owner leaving he could let himself in. Maura always called around closing time or after. Also, it has to be Maura who calls so that people think she's ordering pizza. If he calls, then it's someone calling Maura specifically & from a cell or motel. LE would investigate that for sure.
Sat the 31st 2:44 AM // Thurs the 5th at 12:00 AM & 12:10 AM // Fri the 6th at 3:40 AM
My guess is that if this is what happened, then he might have been due back to work/school on Tuesday or Maura was waiting for the check from her student loan which she might have gotten on that Monday (James Renner blog.) If UMass agreed to hide the fact that they helped her to leave an abusive relationship, they might have made the cheque out to cash.
Let's say the Hadley accident was exactly that, an accident & nothing more.
Finally, the day of departure...
February 9th, 2004 SPECULATION:
  • She goes to the Amherst motel behind Domino's & meets up with BF.
  • The Saturn is towed from or picked up at Zbylut Motorworks garage (aka Autozone) (open since 2003.) This is one example but there seems to have been other auto-repair shops nearby.
February 9th, 2004 FACTS:
  • Maura goes to ATM & receipt is printed around 3:15 PM.
  • She gets the insurance forms from AAA located between liquors 44 & the bottle return place.
  • She or her BF returns the cans & either both or one or the other buys the alcohol & cigarettes at the liquor store & pays at 3:43 PM.
ETA: I don't think the friend/BF ever went to Maura's dorm room or else they'd be easily identifiable & it wouldn't be the smartest idea if the plan was to help her disappear. It's possible however that he was a 4th person at the party or that just like the tandem theory, a friend of Maura's was relating info from the friend/BF to Maura.
ETA: If you're an AAA member, you can do your most common RMV business at this AAA location.
If she can do all that's included in link above, she can get an SF91 accident form. Wouldn't even need to be a member I think. Everyone wondered (including myself) where she got them. Then I enlarged the map & it became obvious.
I also wouldn't be surprised if she then went down the road to one of the cell phone stores, bought herself a burner, called her old mobile one last time & then dumped the old phone. Occam's razor?
ETA: Guess what else she could have done at AAA?
She could have gotten roads maps or asked a travel agent to ,map out her itinerary & book her a hotel room. I hope LE interviewed the employees of the AAA agency-they probably did. It may be the reason why they didn't feel that interviewing the Salamones was pertinent.

submitted by DivineinArt to MauraMurraySub [link] [comments]

2023.03.21 01:04 miguk New Bedford/Fall River bus to Boston to shut down; please help!

Fellow Redditors, I'm asking for your help with an important issue. I'm not sure if this is entirely allowed in this subreddit (after checking the rules list, it seems like it's okay), but the situation is desperate.
DATTCO, the company that has a monopoly on busing from southern Bristol County to Boston, is going to shut down their bus line for Fall River, New Bedford, Fairhaven, Dartmouth, and Taunton to Boston. Unless something changes, this will happen on April 16.
Currently, there is no alternative transport from the area to Boston. The South Coast Rail project is still being worked on, and will not be ready to run trains until "late 2023" (current official words), assuming it is ready on time. In the meantime, multiple people will be stuck with a difficult commute that will be unfairly expensive in terms of time and money. Many of us can not, for various reasons (ranging from financial issues to disability), simply drive to Boston by car. This situation will have an unfair toll on an already underserved population.
I know I'm asking a lot of random strangers to use their precious time to help out our community without much benefit to themselves. But at the same time, I'm sure there are many of you who would like to see our state take some responsibility with maintaining the public transportation system. If we can at least stop this from happening, we could prevent another transportation disaster before it even happens.
Here's how you can help:
Please use any and all information below to contact your elected representatives, senators, and department heads to tell the story of DATTCO's intention to quit the New Bedford/Fairhaven-to-Boston line in mid-April. For public contacts, ask for a legislative aide or a clerk to the office manager. Please include these talking points: "The bus line is used for connections to jobs, to medical appointments, to other transportation such as Logan Airport, and for access to vital resources unavailable in south Bristol County."
(Note: All numbers below are to the offices of elected officials. No personal info or non-publically available info is being shared.)
Mass Dept of Transportation Rail & Transit Division:
Office of Gov Maura Healey:
Congressional district offices:
New Bedford Mayor Jonathan Mitchell: 508-979-1410
Edit: Added the link to the official statement from DATTCO's website.
submitted by miguk to massachusetts [link] [comments]

2023.03.20 22:07 Alluminatus East West Rail Commission

Hi folks,
Im going to make this a separate post in case anyone is banned on the other subreddit and wants to comment on this.
This is mainly for western Massachusetts, but anyone can come I believe. The DOT is holding two more forums tomorrow for the East West rail, and I’m going to guess it’ll be the last two. There will be one in Northampton at 1 pm in and one in Springfield at Springfield Technical Community College at 6 pm. If anyone wants a higher frequency and quality rail service across the state, I strongly invite you to come. You can find the exact details here.
submitted by Alluminatus to Massachusetts_US [link] [comments]

2023.03.20 22:04 Alluminatus East West Rail Commission

Hi folks,
This is mainly for western Massachusetts, but anyone can come I believe. The DOT is holding two more forums tomorrow for the East West rail, and I’m going to guess it’ll be the last two. There will be one in Northampton at 1 pm in and one in Springfield at Springfield Technical Community College at 6 pm. If anyone wants a higher frequency and quality rail service across the state, I strongly invite you to come. You can find the exact details here.
submitted by Alluminatus to massachusetts [link] [comments]

2023.03.20 20:34 feetfirstclinic The Importance of Foot Care for People with Rheumatoid Arthritis

The Importance of Foot Care for People with Rheumatoid Arthritis
If you suffer from Rheumatoid arthritis, chances are you’re already scheduling regular appointments with a chiropodist. And if you aren’t, you may be overdue. This serious condition requires assistance and guidance from a healthcare professional.
That said, it’s truly amazing what practicing foot care on your own time can help you achieve. The two main goes of foot care for people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are pain management and avoiding complications.
Today we will discuss how lifestyle factors such as shoe choices and exercises can help you structure your life around RA with less discomfort. But first, let’s break down everything we’ll discuss today:
  • What is Rheumatoid arthritis?
  • Best shoes for Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Rheumatoid arthritis and exercises
  • Additional foot care practices for RA

What is Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune and inflammatory disease that wreaks havoc on your joints by mistakenly targeting the body’s healthy cells, leading to inflammation. It most commonly affects the feet, hands, wrists and knees.
It’s critical to take Rheumatoid arthritis seriously. If you don’t pay attention to foot care and neglect regular check-ups, you may be putting yourself at risk of developing complications. These include osteoporosis, an increased body mass index (BMI), heart and lung problems, and a compromised immune system that leaves you more vulnerable to infections.
Click here to read more on RA, including symptoms, treatments from a chiropodist, and helpful medications.

Best Shoes for Rheumatoid Arthritis

One way to practice foot care and pain management with RA is to be extremely vigilant about your shoes.
Medical News Today notes that people with RA should look for shoes with a wide-toe box, rocker bottoms and cushioning with arch support. Adjustable straps and breathable materials can also be beneficial to maximize comfort levels.
  • Rocker bottoms: Also called rocker soles, this shoe feature can reduce pain and help with mobility and activity limitation in RA patients. They are designed to reduce pressure under the ball of the foot and excessive toe motion.
  • Wide toe box: Rheumatoid arthritis can lead to foot deformities in the form of severe bunions, claw toes and hammertoes. It can also cause severely flat feet, and a widened forefoot, sometimes called splay foot. Rheumatoid nodules (firm bumps of tissue) can also pop up anywhere along the affected area. Wearing shoes with a wide toe box is imperative for maintaining a certain comfort level and accommodating these deformities.
  • Adjustable straps: When you have Rheumatoid arthritis, having more room in the entire shoe to accommodate stiff joints and deformities can be a major plus.
  • Breathable materials: A 2019 study highlighting important features of retail shoes for women with RA found that breathable materials (such as soft mesh uppers) were crucial for most patients.
Cushioning and arch support: The same study reported that most women found shoes with adequate rearfoot and forefoot cushioning most comfortable. Women said the same about longitudinal arch support.
The Clarks Wave 2.0 has a rocker sole

Rheumatoid Arthritis and Exercise

An exercise routine can help most people with arthritis in the lower extremities. We’re not talking about exerting energy levels you aren’t comfortable with or practicing difficult workouts and training. We know that mobility constraints will always be an issue.
Exercises should simply work the muscles in your feet and lower half to prevent atrophy from a lack of use and help with pain management and mobility.

Here are some multi-purposeful exercises that can also help with RA:

Toe Flex and Raise
Ankle Circles / Alphabet
Calf Stretch on a Stair

Be sure to also check out our two-part series on the best exercises for arthritis!

Additional Foot Care Practices for RA

  • The RICE Method: Sometimes, your pain may flare up to the point where all you can do is be patient and wait until it passes. Luckily the magical combination of rest, ice (or heat), compression, and elevation can help you accommodate severe pain and swelling.
  • Summer footwear: During the warm months, wear sandals with open toes.
  • Warmth: Keep your feet as warm as possible, as cold air can worsen joint pain. A heating pad can also be very helpful for loosening stiff muscles.
  • Foot baths: The warm water in foot baths can loosen up stiff joints. Try adding Gehwol foot bath products for added comfort!
  • Meditation: Stress can often trigger RA flare-ups, so reducing anxiety via healthy, quiet rumination can be a wonderful preventative measure. Other stress-reducing lifestyle habits include taking walks (when physically able) and listening to soothing music.

Don't Forget to Visit Feet First Clinic!

Foot care from home is valuable, but combining that with the insight and skills of a chiropodist guarantees that you are doing everything you can to manage your Rheumatoid arthritis!
Contact our office to book an appointment! Please fill out our online booking form, or call us at 416-769-3338!
submitted by feetfirstclinic to FeetFirstClinic [link] [comments]

2023.03.20 18:05 Bubzoluck [15 min read] The Hunt for Red Corona - The Russian Flu of 1890 was likely a COVID 1.0!

[15 min read] The Hunt for Red Corona - The Russian Flu of 1890 was likely a COVID 1.0!
Hello and welcome back to SAR! Much like the groundhog poking its head out of its burrough, the world is starting to wake up from the dark cloud that was COVID-19. Now this isn’t to say that COVID is gone, SARS and MERS from earlier in this century prove that the Corona Virus is a fact of our lives, but I do think that the worst is over. BUT before people start to click off this post because I dare to say the C-word, today I want to talk about an epidemic that has fallen to the wayside of history: the 1889-1890 Pandemic. Also called the Asiatic Flu or the Russian Flu this was a respiratory viral pandemic that struck the Russian Empire before being transported globally via newly established railroads and steamships. Despite being the first true global pandemic, we don’t really remember this blip of history and the question is: why? Well today we shall explore this forgotten disease and answer the question that wasn’t in your mind at all, there is a COVID-OC43?

Exit, Pursued by a Bear

+2 extra credit points for anyone who knows what this section title references. Before we can talk about the pandemic we have to talk about what was going on in 1890. At this point in time the world was engrossed in what is considered the second Industrial Revolution, also called the Technological Revolution, this period began in 1870 due to the discovery of great synergies. Firstly, the invention of the Blast Furnace by Scottish James Neilson allowed for iron to be heated at higher temps and being tempered with coal in a more efficient manner thus leading to an increased production of Steel. The use and manipulation of Steel cannot be understated—cheap Steel allowed for building larger bridges and skyscrapers, opened up the agricultural sector by providing more robust steam-driven farm equipment to feed the burgeoning industrial working class, built the next standard for war equipment, and most importantly for our story, laid the foundation of rail and steamship transport. The use of rail cannot be understated either: a railway could turn the week long trip from Scotland highlands to London into a day affair (albeit a long one). This ability to transport people or cargo in a day when it would take upwards of a week at times is what changed the idea of distance and made the world much much smaller. Afterall, nowadays if it takes 6 hours to drive somewhere far away we think what a long trip, while in 1810 a 6 hour trip might have been just to get to the next village over.
  • We call this temporal shortening of distance Globalization and the end of the 19th century represented the first hard step in that effort. Looking at the graph we can see that over the 60 years that rail development took off, rail development was the driving force behind Globalization. A quick look at the rail maps of the German Empire in 1840 vs 1880 shows that having a rail line close to your city or port was crucial for the economic (and defense) of the country. Russia…is a different story or rather an even bigger story. Much bigger.
  • If you are unaware the Russian Empire was HUGE; at its peak it covered 22.8 MILLION square miles and is the third largest empire in history (after the British Empire and the Mongol Empire). For much of its history, upwards of 80% of the population of Russia lived west of the Ural Mountains in what is called European Russia. But with that area of Russia being occupied densely for thousands of years, most of the natural resources were extracted from Siberia while farming was extracted from the Chernozem region (modern day Ukraine and Kazakhstan). So in order for food or raw materials to be shipped from the outer edges of the empire into the heartland, it would have to cover upwards of one thousand kilometers. Before rail, this was a 2 week journey and all the while you are racing against the clock so the food doesn’t spoil before it gets to the markets in the middle of St. Petersburg.
    • Up until the creation of the railroad, like most civilizations, trade was done via rivers and luckily the Volga River runs north-south straight through the middle of European Russia. Despite this centrally located river traversing the upper portions of the river were frozen for 6-7 months per year making it basically useless for transferring cargo. Peter the Great built the Vyshnii Volochek System, an extensive canal system, that linked the newly created St. Petersburg with the old capital of Moscow in 1709. Although the canals improved travel it still took 3 months to travel from Moscow and St. Petersburg. To go from Astrakhan on the Black Sea up to St. Petersburg (traversing the entire length of European Russia) was a notable 2 year trip. One way.
    • Well why not roads? Well Russia at the time was known for very wet soils that made roads extremely muddy and dangerous. In fact, the best time to traverse by road was during the winter when the mud was frozen but this added the danger of trying to transport people and animals in the sub-zero temperatures. Alexander I laid the first real roads in 1817 between Moscow and St. Petersburg which was finished in 1834. If weather held, a small cart could make the trip between the two cities in 10 days but the road was small and could only really allow for small non bulky goods to be moved. The true time was closer to 70 days. In response to this Nicholas I founded a committee to study plans for road development in 1833 that would be studied and funded by central, provincial, and local authorities so all roads in Russia were improved slowly but surely. Despite the good intention, the plan failed due to a lack of funds, engineers, and labor.
  • Despite the problems with river and road transport, Russian leaders were hesitant to embrace the railroad. Minister of Finance Count Kankrin and Minister of Ways and Communication Count K F Toll believed that money should be spent improving the agricultural sector rather than building these large and expensive machines and rail systems (completely looking over the fact that there was plenty of food it just couldn’t be transported quick enough). The first railroad would then be privately sponsored for mining and would instantly prove their usefulness over horse and cart. In just 15 years the cost of the railroad would be paid for. In response to this the Russian Government believed that private industry should take the financial risk rather than embracing the technology.
  • On January 6, 1835 Austrian engineer Franz Anton von Gerstner sent a letter to Nicholas I and proposed an extensive Russian railway system. Von Gerstner was probably the most qualified person in Europe due to being the first person to build a railway on continental Europe (Danube-Moldavia line) and he provided statistics about the usefulness of rail. Probably the most important of which was the English’s ability to suppress Irish disorder quickly with easy troop movements. The first line to be completed was between Moscow and Tsarskoe Selo in 1836, with a new St. Petersburg-Moscow line in 1851. With great attribution to the Crimean War (1853-1856), the total amount of rail would increase from 5000km in 1860 to over 53,200km in 1899.
  • Probably most important among these railways was the Trans-Siberian Railway started by Tsar Nicholas II in 1891. Starting in Moscow in the West, this railroad would stretch 9,289km (5,772mi) to its terminus at Vladivostok in the East. To put this in perspective,if you were standing in San Francisco and boarded a train, the final destination would be Spain, yeah you’d go over the Atlantic Ocean. That’s how long this thing is! Despite being the largest province in the country, Siberia represented the least developed part of the country mostly due to its vastness and inability to traverse laterally. Several rivers flow through the region but are untraversable except for 5 months of the year due to freezing over. Walking the distance could take upwards of a year but once the railway was completed it took a mere 7 days. That’s nuts!

Wow you really love trains don't you?

Well… not really i'm pretty indifferent to them but they are fairly important to the beginning of our story! Close your eyes and imagine it is 1889 in the city of Bukhara in modern day Uzbekistan. Bukhara is an ancient city, probably founded sometime in the 6th century BC, the Bukhara region was a regional capital for the Persian Empire when it reigned in this area. Bukhara remained a servant to the dominant empire of the region for the majority of its history and following the invasion of Russia into Iran in 1804, Bukhara once again shifted hands into the Russian Empire. By May 1889 the city was like any other bustling regional power in the late 19th century: merchants hustled their products to passerbys, children played in the street kicking an air filled sheep’s bladder, and doctors made house calls. One doctor, Oskar Heyfelder, was working one warm May day going from house to house when he encountered a sickly old matron of a large family. She was dying—a respiratory influenza had taken hold of her and she was quickly fading. The doctor stood over the old woman with his hat in his hand and recommend opium and a priest. There was nothing more he could do.
  • Little did Heyfelder know but he had just encountered one of the first people to be infected in the 1889 pandemic and the disease would spread quickly via—you guessed it—railroad. See back in 1879 a new Trans-Caspian Railway was built along an old Silk Road corridor which would have bypassed Bukhara entirely. That is if it wasn’t for the last Emir of Bukhara Muhammad Alim Khan (1880-1944) who was unhappy with the nearest station being dozens of miles away in Kagan so he built a private spur to Bukhara itself. With the rail connection established the disease spread quickly up the railway into Russia and then exported to the rest of the world over weeks. I found a great map from a 1892 book published on the Russian Flu that shows the spread of disease by coloring the map. [In case it's hard to read, go to the link and then page 218 of the pdf].

The Butler Weekly Times, Butler MO, Jan 1 1890
  • From the first cases reported in Bukhara, Russian Flu would travel up to Tomks in Western Siberia, Ufa (100 km east of Moscow), Kazan (700 km east of Moscow), Ukraine, and Novgorod (near St. Petersburg) by October of 1889. By November Moscow was hit with 20,000 cases alone which crippled the growing worker’s population and grinded production to a halt. Somewhere between 25-50% of soldiers and students were taken ill which added an extra burden on families. Mid-November saw 180,000 of the one million citizens of St. Petersburg infected. The bread-basket of the Russian Empire was struck next when Kiev and the rest of Ukraine fell to the disease although luckily it hit after the Autumn harvest had already come in.
  • Once established in Russian the disease was able to spread out of the motherland to other regions. Via St. Petersburg the infection hopped aboard Baltic ships and was exported to Finland, Sweden, Germany, and Denmark. In Sweden up to 60% of the population would be infected within 2 months of the Flu landing. As a major trading hub, Posen had an extensive rail network that allowed for the Flu to move throughout Germany infecting half of the 1.5 million residents of Berlin. Vienna and Rome got it by early December; Paris by Christmas; Spain in January where up to 300 people died a day in Madrid alone. London, Birmingham, Glasgow, and Dublin took a punch by Christmas as well.
  • Remember that this is the age of small Earth where globalization has made a trip across the Atlantic as short as 7 days. Russian Flu entered Boston and New York City on December 18th, 1889 before being sent West towards Chicago and San Francisco (who would particularly be hit bad). Once in the United States it would spread north to Montreal and south to Mexico and the rest of South America. By February the disease reached East via the Dutch trading companies and spread liberally among the South East Asian population. Japan, Australia, and New Zealand all caught it in April; China in May.

The Deadly Disease Wasn’t That Deadly

Now if it feels like I’m leaving something important out, that's because I am. Usually when you talk about pandemics we talk about how quickly it spread and then the death toll. All told, the pandemic killed about 1 million people worldwide—now don’t get me wrong this is an enormous loss of life and its unfortunate that these people died but in the grand scheme of things it just wasn’t that deadly. During this same period, a global Cholera pandemic was going on which killed at least 4 million people, Russian Typhus Epidemic in 1919 killed 3 million, and in 1918 the Spanish Flu would devastate the globe with somewhere between 17 and 100 million people dead. That being said, some important people did catch the disease: future King Edward VII of England nearly died before his mother, Queen Victoria, left the throne, although many suspect that his catching this disease ultimately led to his death in 1910. His son Prince Albert Victor, the grandson of Queen Victoria and 2nd in line for the throne, caught it in January of 1892 and died at the age of 28 making way for Queen Elizabeth II to eventually be crowned. Augusta, Queen Empress consort to Emperor Wilhelm I of Germany fell ill in 1890 and died within 4 months. Alexander III of Russia managed to just survive the condition which prompted him to make major public health changes in St. Petersburg. I could go on.
  • So what even happened then? It would start with typical cold symptoms: sweating, fever and chills, sneezing, watery eyes, and dry cough. But contemporary doctors did identify 4 distinct clinical forms of Russian Flu: a simple fever that would increase over 48 hours and then subside within 3 or 4 days; a gastrointestinal form in which people had severe diarrhea, fevers, and stomach aches (which honestly could have been a co-infection with the raging Cholera epidemic at the time); a rarer catarrhal form (profuse mucus production that would fill the sinuses and lungs and progress to pneumonia); and finally the worst one, a “nervous” form that caused intense nerve pain in the hands and feet driving people mad. Regardless of which form someone got the worst symptom, and the most common reason why someone would die outside of catching pneumonia (fluid in the lungs) is developing skin lesions. These bullae (large blisters filled with white fluid) were painful, itchy, and formed in the creases of the feet, hands, and extremities which were prone to popping—once popped they were open sores ripe for infection. If you didn’t manage to die from the skin lesions then kidney failure, digestive inability, or spinal nerve damage that would drive people towards suicide was another common way to die.
    • Here’s the problem with Russian Flu…it doesn’t appear to be a Flu. Nowadays we attribute the word Flu to the Influenza Virus, a small RNA virus from the family Orthomyxoviridae but back in previous centuries the word Influenza meant any disease that affected humans. The word is derived from the Latin influentia meaning “to flow into” and it was believed that the stars gave off an intangible fluid that flowed into humans and caused sickness. Eventually this idea would morph into the Humoral Theory of Disease in which there are 4 fluids in the body that need to be balanced else they cause disease. There are 4 types of Influeza Virus: A and C which infect a variety of different animals (human, pig, bird, horse, bat), B which exclusively infects humans (although seals have been seen with Influenza B), and D which exclusively infects pigs and cows. If you’re older than 10 years old, you’ve almost certainly been infected with Flu at some point—already the 2022-2023 Flu season has 26 million infections in just the US alone.
  • Real quick I want to talk about the names of Influenza Viruses. The Influenza Virus is a sphere shaped particle that has primarily two proteins on its surface: Hemagglutinin (HA or H) and Neuraminidase (NA or N). These proteins are incredibly important for the virulence of the pathogen—the Hemagglutinin helps the virus bind to the target cell and infect its viral genome into the cell while the Neuraminidase helps burst the cell when the baby viruses are ready to be released. So far 18 HA subtypes (called serotypes) and 11 NA serotypes have been isolated in nature allowing for considerable genetic variation. Thus we classify Influenza A viruses based on what version of the H and N proteins they have: H1N1 caused the Spanish Flu of 1918 (killing 20-100 million people) and the Swine Flu of 2009 (killing about 400,000 people); or H3N2 caused Hong Kong Flu in 1968-9 (1 million dead). Even still there are several combinations that only infect animals, such as H5N1 is Avian Flu and is tracked by many governments to prevent a possible transmission from bird to humans. All Flu A viruses are also classified by a standard nomenclature based on where and when they were first discovered. For example, Swine Flu was referred to as A/Brisbane/59/2007 since it was first discovered in Brisbane in 2007.
  • The thing is, Russian Flu may not be an Influenza like we first thought. Traditionally it is believed that the Russian Flu was caused by H3N8 (which primarily infects horses) or H2N2 (which caused the Asian Flu of 157-8). The problem with this is that Russian Flu does not share many of the common Flu symptoms we have seen in other outbreaks—Flu follows a pretty consistent 2-8 day pattern focusing mostly in the lungs. Severe complications of Flu can lead to more severe respiratory distress, meningitis, or encephalitis but other organ involvement is pretty limited. Russian Flu almost always involved other organs. This idea isn’t a contemporary one either, people had suspicions on just what Russian Flu really was.
    • Following the discoveries of Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch in the field of microbiology, the race of finding the causative agents for common diseases was on. In 1891, German Richard Pfeiffer isolated an unknown bacteria from the nose swabs of patients infected with Influenza. On January 4th, 1892 he announced he had found it, the cause of Influenza: Haemophilus influenzae. There was a momentous uproar in the scientific community because if we know what causes a disease it indicates that we can treat the disease. The problem is that Pfeiffer could not replicate the infection of H. influenzae showing definitively that it caused Flu. But as more and more people kept finding H. influenzae in patients affected with Flu, the observations were corroborated and later was accepted as fact—by 1900 it was believed that the cause of Flu (any lung infection) was due to this bacteria. This fact was firmly cemented in the medical psyche as H. influenzae was found over and over again in Flu victims during the Spanish Flu epidemic of 1918.

A List of Flu Cures Dancing to Flu
  • But there was some skeptics—one of the big reasons to doubt was that antibiotics at the time did not touch Flu. Now this was before Penicillin but drugs like Salvarsan were the goto agent to kill a multitude of bacteria (you can read more about this arsenic containing ‘medicine’ in my post here!) but it couldn’t touch the Flu. It wouldn’t be until 1931 that the disease Influenza was discovered to be from a virus not a bacteria like once thought. When the development of genome sequencing came about, we were able to sequence Spanish Flu (1918) as H1N1, the same one that caused the Asian Influenza epidemic in 1957 and later Swine Flu in 2009. In 2005 we used samples from graves to ‘revive’ the 1918 virus and found that it was incredibly infectious in primates. When Flu was discovered in 1933, scientists back-dated all epidemics that were called Influenza and claimed it was caused by H1N1. There is additional evidence to support this claim though that Flu may have caused Russian Flu. By looking at serotypes in corpses of adults born between 1863 and 1886, they discovered higher antibodies for the H2 subtype. But when they analyzed samples from corpses from 1910, they had the same levels.

The Hunt for Red Corona
  • Following the COVID-19 pandemic, researchers started to take another look at the Russian Flu and see if it was infact Flu. COVID-19 does resemble Influenza epidemics due to its similar respiratory symptoms but with other organ involvement, a Coronavirus was implicated more than a Influenza one. There are 7 Coronaviruses that are infectious to humans—3 caused deadly epidemics SARS-CoV-1 (9% mortality) usually referred to the SARS outbreak in 2002-2004, MERS-CoV (30% mortality) which popped up in 2012, and SAR-CoV-2 (0.6-2%) which we are in right now. The other 4 Coronaviruses are implicated in 15-30% of common colds and have been in the population for decades (probably centuries), HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, and HCoV-HKU1. The milder viruses are seasonal and show up every 3-4 years during the normal Flu season of autumn to early spring.In 2005 Belgian researchers found that HCoV-OC43’s genome was very similar to another coronavirus found in cow, BCoV. The DNA sequence of OC43 was almost identical to that of BCoV isolated from corpses from 1890. Does this mean that a coronavirus was the cause of Russian Flu? Well let’s look at the evidence:
    • Firstly, we know viruses can jump between species, especially when there is big populations of that species in prolonged contact with the second—this is why giant pig or bird farms can be hotbeds for viral transmission. With the development of railways in Russia in the second half of the 19th century, cows started to be transported in mass quantities along the railway. This meant that thousands of cattle were packed into tiny poorly ventilated compartments allowing for easy transmission of disease. From 1870 to 1890, the bacteria Mycoplasma mycoides completely crushed cattle populations due to them being packed in close quarters and herds had to be slaughtered quickly to prevent the spread from going worldwide. What would those workers have been exposed to as they started to slaughter more and more animals? Diseases, specifically cow diseases that could have made the jump. This isn’t as far-fetched as it seems—the 2002 SARS epidemic became much worse following the slaughter of thousands of civets for human consumption. Likewise it was noted in 1889 that the cows showed the same symptoms as humans. So it's possible that HCoV-OC43 is the virus that mutated from cows into humans. So between the similarity in symptoms between COVID-19 and Russian Flu, the industrialization of the railways allowing for viruses to mutate and then for people to spread it quickly and globally, and the use of genomic science, we now believe that Russian Flu was really Russian COVID. Let’s just be glad that HCoV-OC43 is now a mild cold and doesn’t cause painful blisters and horrible nerve pain. Cheers!
submitted by Bubzoluck to SAR_Med_Chem [link] [comments]

2023.03.20 14:09 Ricosss Persistent fasting lipogenesis links impaired ketogenesis with citrate synthesis in humans with non-alcoholic fatty liver. (Pub Date: 2023-03-16)



Hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and β-oxidation are tightly coordinated, and their dysregulation is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL). Fasting normally relaxes DNL-mediated inhibition of hepatic β-oxidation, dramatically increasing ketogenesis and decreasing reliance on the TCA cycle. Thus, we tested whether aberrant oxidative metabolism in fasting NAFL subjects is related to the inability to halt fasting DNL.


Forty consecutive non-diabetic individuals with and without a history of NAFL were recruited for this observational study. After phenotyping, subjects fasted for 24-hr, and hepatic metabolism was interrogated using a combination of 2H2O and 13C tracers, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and high-resolution mass spectrometry.


Within a subset of subjects, DNL was detectable after a 24-hr fast and was more prominent in those with NAFL, though it was poorly correlated with steatosis. However, fasting DNL negatively correlated with hepatic β-oxidation and ketogenesis and positively correlated with citrate synthesis. Subjects with NAFL but undetectable fasting DNL (25th percentile) were comparatively normal. However, those with the highest fasting DNL (75th percentile) were intransigent to the effects of fasting on the concentration of insulin, NEFA, and ketones. Additionally, they sustained glycogenolysis and spared the loss of oxaloacetate to gluconeogenesis in favor of citrate synthesis, which correlated with DNL and diminished ketogenesis.


Metabolic flux analysis in fasted subjects indicates that shared metabolic mechanisms link the dysregulations of hepatic DNL, ketogenesis, and the TCA cycle in NAFL.


Data obtained during the enrollment/non-intervention phase of Effect of Vitamin E on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, NCT02690792.


------------------------------------------ Info ------------------------------------------
Open Access: True
Additional links: *
------------------------------------------ Open Access ------------------------------------------
If the paper is behind paywall, please consider uploading it to our google drive anonymously.
You'll have to log on to Google but none of your personal data is stored. I will manually add a link to the file in this post when received.
Upload PDF
submitted by Ricosss to TheKetoScienceJournal [link] [comments]